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NEW WORKS 



GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & CO, 

FAEMNGDOH STREET, LONDON; 

13, BEEEMAH STREET, HEW TORE 
And by ordeT, Co be obtained 0/ alt Baohiellere. 



MR. AINSWORTK'S NEW NOVEL, 
la One Vol., pnce Fl\li SsnuNQS, cloth gilt. 

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A Tali of EnglUh Home. 

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TURKEY : Past and Present. 

By J. R. MORELL, Author of « Russia as it is." 

Omtains, the Russian Campaign of 1828 and 1829, Sketches of the Sultan 
the Koran, Religion, and Geography, the Productions, History, and Military 
power of Turkey, and will most admirabljr supply the now great want, of 
good, useful, and correct information on this important country. 



Mf 



'4i^^6S^ 



SHILLING COOKERY 



pon 



THE PEOPLE: 



XICBBAOIVO 



AN ENTIRELY NEW SYSTEM OF PLAIN COOKERY, 
AND DOMESnC ECONOMY. 



BT 

ALEXIS SOYER, 

AUTBOB or ** THB HODHBV HOUSBWIVBt" 

BTO. BTO. 



tKttMi ^S^nwxiti. 



/f- '■ 






i .'6 



V"*' 



^^ 'V ' '^! ''^' 



LONDON: 
GEO. BOUTLEDGE k CO., FARKINGDON STKBET. 

KEW TOBK: 18, BEEKKAN STBEET. 

1854. 
[The Author tftkis work retervet ike right tftrantlating it.l 




60007061 QT 



LOVDOV: 
MTIU iJn> BDWiJU>8, 

CKiS1>0B 8XBB1T. 



TO THE BiaHT HOKOUBABLE 

THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY, 

XTO. BTO. BTO. 



Mr LoBD^ 

The kind condescension which permits 
the dedication of this work to one of such eminent 
philanthropic sentiments as your Lordship, has a claim 
TiX>on my most profound gratitude, and more than repays 
me for the time and study I have devoted to its production* 

With the highest consideration, 

I haye the honour to be. 

Your Lordship's most humble and 

obedient servant, 

ALEXIS SOYER. 



PREFACE. 



In the course of a long and laborious career, entirely de- 
voted, both in study and practice, to the preparation of the food 
of man in a manner most conducive to his health, — I have 
published two works on Modem Cookery, both of a different 
character, namely, ' The Gastronomic Regenerator,* adapted 
for the higher class of epicures ; the second, for the easy middle 
class, under the title of the * Modem Housewife* The success 
of both I gratefully acknowledge as having far exceeded my 
expectations. 

While actively employed, under the authority of govemmeni^ 
in a mission to Ireland, in the year of the famine, 1847, it struck 
me that my services would be more useful to the million than 
confining them, as I had hitherto done, to the wealthy few. I 
immediately set to work, but soon found out my error, that I was 
merely acquainted with the manners and ways of living of the 
above two classos of society, for whom I had previously catered. 

Perceiving that it would be impossible to cure a disease with- 
out first arriving at its cause and origin, I found that the only 
course I bad to pursue was to visit peiaoimlL'^ \Xi<^ %^)kA»^) «b^ 



Tlii PBEFAOE. 

learn the manners of those to wliom I was about to address 
myself, and thereby get acquainted with their wants. 

■ 

My readers will easily perceive that, whilst semi-buried in my 
fashionable culinary sanctorum at the Beform Clnb, surrounded 
by the ^lite of society, who daily honoured me with their visits in 
that lounge of good cheer, I could not gain, through the stone 
walls of that massive edifice, the slightest knowledge of Cottage 
life. 

Determined to cany out my long thought of project, I cheer- 
fully bade adieu to my wealthy employers, leaving them in a most 
tibriving condition, regretting only my fair visitors ; and, like a 
joyful pilgrim of the olden time, I set forth on my journey, 
visiting on my route eveiy kind of philanthropic and other use- 
ful institution, but more especially the domains of that indus- 
trial class, the backbone of every free oountiy — ^the People,— to 
whom for the present I bid farewell, leaving them in the hands 
of ma cKbre Hortense, who will relate to them, with her usual 
affability, the result of my visits through the United Sjngdom. 



CONTENTS. 



IllTSOlUTOTIoy. 

Leiler . 

Letter 

Loiter 

Soups in Iron Saucepan or Stewpan 

Gxidizon ^ • , 

Fiflh on Qridiron 

How to Boil all kinds of Fish « 

Fish in Tin-pan in Oven , 

Fried Fish . , 

The Three-l^^ged Iron-pot 

Important Observations on Curing Hams and BaooB 

Lamb . «. ^ « 

Oz-liyer as used in France 

French Pot-au-feu 

Important Remarks on Cod-liver Oil 

Carthusian of Meat and Vegetables 

General Ignorance ef the Poor in Cooking 

The Qiidiron and Frying-pan 

Important Bemarks on Steak and Bnmpsteak 

Introduction to Frying-pan 

Fowls 

Curious Effeots of Imagination • 

Introduction to Baking Stewpan 

Hints on the Pig 

On Boasting • • • 

How to Boaist 

On the Economy of Boasting by Gas, NoU 

Cottage Boasting 

Time-table for Boasting 

On Meat in Baker's Oven 

A few Hints on Baking Meat « 

An Improved Baking-dish. 

A Series of Beceipts on Baked Meats 

Meat Puddings 

Meat Ptes • • • 

YegetaUes 

Qeneral Lesson on the Cooking of YegiUHw 

Pian^ called the ThonMuA Heads 



VAOB 
1 

a 

4 
7 
17 
ib. 
21 
24 
26 
29 
82 
83 
87 
88 
41 
48 
46 
48 
(0 
5& 
62 
68 
69 
83 
88 
89 
90 
ib. 
91 
93 
94 
ib. 
95 
97 
103 



2 IHTBODUCrrOBY LKITTEBfiU 

Those who visit these humble abodes to inculcate the 
divine precepts of the Saviour of mankind, do but half the 
great work, unless they at the same time show how those 
things which the Almighty has created as food for man 
can be employed towards his nourishment. 

In some of my letters, my dear friend, I think I have 
sent you a description of some scenes I witnessed in tiie 
course of my rambles, especially in Ir^and, resulting £L*om 
a want of knowledge, all of which l^ears a moral; and 
what a high feeling of delight and satisfaction it 'will be 
to na, should we find that the resist of our labour i^ 
crowned with success, in an^eliorating the conditions of 
these classes; for believe me, I was right when I stated 
that the morals of a people greatly depend on their food^ 
and wherever th^ ^ome of a^ individual} ii\ whatever class 
of society he may piove, is made comfortable and happy, 
the more moral and religious will that person be. 



Deabbst HoBTiarsii, 

I highly approve of your plan; 
it is time that it was put into action. I am fearfal that 
our friends, the pubUc, to whom we promised, some four 
years since, a work like the present, will have beeome 
impatient; but they will be gainers by the delay, as by 
your visits to the various parts of the United Kingdom^ 
you have obtained that insight into the domestic arrange- 
ments of the class of persons for whom it is intended, that 
coidd not be obtained by any other means* 



IHTBOPUOTOBY UBTTJBB8, 3 

* Your new plan of writing a series of receipts peculiarly 
adapted for such humble utensils as the gridiron^ frying- 
pan^ iron pan, and black pot, is at once original, and 
cannot fail of being very eflfective ; for no matter how 
humble or poor the dwelling, one of those faithful 
servants are sure to be found at its post ; and I do not 
doubt b^t t/hsk^i u^ider your tuition, they will prove of 
greater value to the public at large than they hitherto 
}iave been. 

If a person, after purchasing this work for a shilling, 
had tq lay out five or six more in kitchen utensils before 
be could cook by it, it would be a great drawback on 
its worthy but by your happy and simple style, you have 
ao succeaafully avoided all complicated matters in its 
pages, that nothing will be requisite but the aforesaid 
simple ki^hen implen^ents to bring it into action. 

I alsQ perceivCji with pleasiu'e,* that you have not 
pmitted the slightest article of cheap food of any descrip- 
tion, which, with the numerous receipts you give for 
d^resaing the same, must prove a great blessing to many^ 
and only require to b^ introduced to the notice of the 
public to form a part of their daily diet 

It is to be regretted that men of science do not interest 
themselves niore tbas^ they do on a subject of such vast 
magnitude as this; fo^ I feel confident that the fobd of 
a country niight be increased at least one-third, if the 
culinary science was properly developed, instead of its 
being slighted as it is now. I myself think it worthy 
the attention, of a peer of the realm; for, as you justly 
observe^ the morals of a coimtry greatly depend on the 

s 2 



nratODTJCTOBY LETTEBS. 



production and preparation of its food^ and most beartil^ 
do I re-echo your sentiments. 



Mt DEABESt PfilEm), 

You are right. Cookery, in our era, 
has been thought heneath the attention of men of science; 
and yet, was there ever a political, commercial, or even a 
domestic event, but what always has been, and always will 
be, celebrated either by a banquet or a dinner? And pray, 
who is answerable for the comfort and conviviality of the 
guests of such festivals but the cook, who has been in- 
trusted with such important duties ? The selection of good 
and proper beverages will, of course, greatly assist the 
cook's endeavours; but these maybe purchased months, 
or even years, before you require them, which would of 
course give you an ample chance of remedying any error; 
Ifhile a dinner is the creation of a day and the success of 
n moment. Therefore you will perceive that nothing more 
disposes the heart to amicable feeling and fti^adly trans- 
actions, than a dinner well conceived and artistically 
prepared. 

In ancient times, a cook, especially if a man, was looked 
upon as a distinguished member of society; while now he 
is, in the opinion of almost every one, a mere menial. 

Still there are a few who highly appreciate the know- 
ledge he possesses, especially in the higher circles, who 
have classified cookery as a high art. For example, let 
,us see what one of the greatest chemists of the day 



INTBODUCTORY LETTERS. 5 

(Liebig) says on tliis imperishable subject, in his valuable 
work, " The Chemistry of Food," that 

" Among all the arts known to man there is none which enjoys 
a juster appreciation, and the products of which are more 
imiversally admired, than that which is concerned in the pre- 
paration of our food. Led by an instinct, which has almost 
reached the dignity of conscious knowledge, as the unerring 
guide, and by the sense of taste, which protects the health, the 
experienced cook, with respect to the choice, the admixture, and 
the preparation of food, has made acquisitions surpassing all 
that chemical and physiological science have done in regard to 
the doctrine or theory of nutrition. In soup and meat sauces, 
he imitates the gastric juice; and bf the cheese which closes the 
banquet, he assists the action of the dissolved epithelium of the 
stomach. The table, supplied with dishes, appears to the 
observer like a machine, the parts of which are harmoniously 
fitted together, and so arranged that, when brought into action, 
a maximum of effect may be obtained by the theory of them. 
The able culinary artist accompanies the sanguineous matter 
with those which promote the process of solution and sanguifi- 
cation, in due proportion ; he avoids all kinds of unnecessary 
stimuli, such as do not act in restoring the equilibriom ; and he 
provides the due nourishment for the child or the weak old man, 
as weU as for the strong of both sexes." 

Such is the high enlogium paid to culinary science by 
that learned man; and perhaps there is no one more able 
of appreciating its value than him. Therefore I do not 
yet despair of seeing the day when that science, like 
others, will have its qualified professors. I now close our 
labours for the present, and wait with anxiety the first 
prooi^ which on receiving I will immediately correct and 
forward to you. 



COOKERY FOR THE PEOPLE. 



SOUPS, IN IRON SAUCEPAN, 
OR STEWPAN. 

SiMPttiFtEt) StOdK FOR SotJPS, GRAVtES, AND 

PLAIN SAUCES. 

Eloiss,^— Perhaps yon ate not aWare of the ireason why the great 
infjority of people in this country are opposed to, and even accused 
6i not liking, soap; the siinple reason is, t^t every receipt described 
in most Cookery Books, is so complicated and expenMve, that they 
cannot afford either the money, time, or attention, to prepare it. I 
will therefore endeavour, in tlds little book, to obviate that difficulty, 
by simplifying the receipts, and reduce it to a system alike quick, 
nutritious, wholesome, and economical; and thUs soup may form a 
part of the daily fkre of every dinner table. 

Please pay particular* attention to the following recdpt, for when 
you are perfect in it, and can make it ^uick and well, ahnodt 
every sort of soup can be made from it, and it will often be referred 
to in different sauces and dishes. 

1. Stock for Clear Soujp. Mr^ Lesson, — Cut two pounda 
bf knuckle or scrag of veal into sm^ pieces, place them in the 
iron pot or stewpan, with two ounces of salt butter or dripping, 
Iwo ounces of lean bacon cut small, three teaspoonfuls of salt, 
half a spoonful of pepper, a gill of water, three middle-si^ed, or 
isix ounces of, onions slicecl. l}ut on the fire ; when boiling, stir 
round with a spoon for about ten minutes, or until it forms a 
whitish thick gravy at the bottom, or gets rather dry, then add 
five pints of hot or cold water ; when boiling, let it simmer gently 
for three quarters of an hour, skim it well, pass it through a 
sieve, and it will be found clear and ready for use for the 
following soups. Only one third of this quantity need be mada^ 



8 SOUPS. 

In case bacon or ham cannot be obtained, nse half a pound more 
meat and a little more salt. 

The meat not being overstewed, will be found excellent eaten 
plain, or with parsley and butter, or any sauce. 

2. Second ic**(m.— Proceed exactly as No. I. Add two 
cloves and about two ounces of carrot, and the same of turnip, 
leeks, celery, or a quarter of a pound of one of them, if you 
cannot get the variety. To add more zest to the flavour, add 
the smallest quantity of thyme, winter savory, or a bay leaf. 
You are, no doubt, aware that at present, in most market towns, 
an assorted lot of vegetables may be obtained at one penny per 
plate, and sometimes at one halfpenny. This second lesson is 
very important, as it gives you the key whereby you may vary 
the flavour of every kind of soup. 

Note, This broth is of a nice white colour, and should it be 
required to look like sherry wine, add sufficient colouring, (see 
No. 462), or half a burnt onion when it is making : these in most 
large cities are now becoming common, and may be procured at the 
grocers, at the cost of cightpence the pound. They will go a great 
way, and if kept in a dry place will last for years. 

3. Brown Gravies, — The following is very good for brown 
sauce, and also for every kind of roast meat, game, or poultry; 
and a gill of it may be used to give a colour to any kind of 
broth, instead of colouring or burnt onions. As there is a little 
difficulty to make it properly, it should only be done on particular 
occasions. 

Grease the bottom of the pot with about two ounces of fat, 
butter, or dripping; cut four onions in thick slices crossways, lay 
them on the bottom, and place over them three pounds of leg 
or shin of beef, or clod and sticking ; cut it slantway in pieces, 
chop the bone, then add two teaspoonfuls of salt, half a spoonful 
of pepper; set it on the fire until it begins to hiss, which 
indicates that all the moisture is dispersed ; reduce the heat of 
the fire by throwing ashes on the top ; put on the pan with the 
cover over. Let the onions stew imtQ quite brown, but not 
burnt, and the fat is as clear as oil, which you will easily perceive 
by holding the pan or pot on one side, the contents of which will 
be smoking hot, and stick to the bottom, though not burning ; 
immediately add five pints of cold water ; when boiling, skim 
and simmer one hour; pass through the sieve, and put by till 



SOUPS. 9 

wanted. It will keep for many days in winter, and also in 
summer, by boiling it every other day, with the addition of half 
a gill of water added to it now and then. 

4. Lesson No, 2. — ^The remains of roast or boiled meats, 
game, poultry, &c., may be added, cut up, and the bones broken, 
using only half the quantity of meat. The meat may be taken 
out and served separate, with a mustard or any sharp sauce. 

The addition of doves (say four), a little mace, carrots, turnips, 
and celery, and a few sweet herbs, will vary the flavour of the 
gravy. 

5. Clear Vegetable Soup, Lesson No, 1. — Cut in small dice, 
two-thirds of carrots and turnips, and one-third of onions, leeks, 
and celery, altogether about half a pound ; wash them well, drain, 
put into pan or iron pot, two ounces of butter or dripping, and a 
teaspoonM of sugar; put on the flre, stir often; when no moisture 
is to be seen add three pints of broth No. 1, simmer and skim, 
until the carrots are tender, and serve. If all the above vege- 
tables cannot be obtained at the same time, use the same weight 
of either. Be careful that you remove the fat from all dear 
soup. All clear vegetable soup, when done, ought to partake 
of a brownish colour. 

6. Lesson No. 2. — ^The addition of a few green peas, when in 
season, also small pieces of brocoli, a cauliflower, or a few 
Brussels sprouts, previously boiled, makes an improvement in the 
above. A little chervil and tarragon render it both pleasant 
and refreshing. 

7. Clear 2W»»ijp, Lesson No, 3. — ^Peel and cut in large dice 
half a pound of turnips, put in pan with butter or fat, and a little 
sugar ; proceed as above. Lesson No. 1, add the broth, simmer, 
skim, and serve. It will not require so long doing as No. 1. 
Give it a nice brown colour. If turnips are either streaky or 
spongy, they will not do. 

8. Jerusalem Artichokes, — ^Wash, peel, cut in dice, and fry as 
above ; when nothing but the clear fat is seen in the pan, and they 
are suffidently done, add the broth. A few minutes will cook 
them. 

9. Carrot Soup, — ^For carrots proceed as above, and simmer 
till tender ; they take twice as long as the ax^Q\i<(^<!!J& ^c^s^. 



lO SOUHL 

10. Vermicelli and Macaroni. — ^Pray, Eloise, why shotild not 
the workman and meclianic partake of theto wholesome and nu- 
tritious articles of food, which have now, in consequence of those 
restrictive laws on provisions having been repealed, become so 
plentiM and cheap P It only requires to know how to cook themj 
in order that they should become as fiivourite a food in these 
northern climes, as they are in the southern * Boil three pmts 
of the broth No. 1, break into it a quarter of a pound of 
vermicelli or macaroni ; boil till tender, and serve. Macaroni 
takes twice as long as vermicelli doing. 

Or, the macaroni can be boiled separate, and kept in salt and 
water for some days, and used as required for soups and made 
dishes. 

11. Mice. — ^Wash well two ounces of common Bengal rice ; boU 
it gently in three pints of broth ; When tender, serve. 

12. Tapioca and Semolina. — ^In case of illness, two ounces of 
tapioca or semolina may be used instead. 

13. W%iie Soup icith 3fe(Rf.=^When the broth No. 1 is done, 
skinl off the fat, put thd meat in the tureen, then put into a 
basin two ounces of flour, mix gently with half a pint of milk, 
a half teaspoonM of salt, and a quarter ditto of pepper ; add 
to the broth by degrees ; boil it ten minutes, and keep stirring ; 
skim and serve with the meat. Fried or toasted bread cut in dice 
may be added. 

14 Good White MocTe Turtle Soup may be easily and cheaply 
made thus : — ^Purchase a calfs head ; if large, use one half for 
a day's dinner; cook as teceipt No. 87; take the remains of 
that, if any, with the other half^ and remote the bone ; out the 
iheat into square pieces ; add it in proportion of one pound of 
meat to every four quarts of broth of No. 1 ; mix some flour and 
milk, as above, and add it to it, and half a teaspooufiil of 
cayenne pepper, and four cloves ; let it simmer on the fire for 
bne hour, tie up six sprigs of savory, same of thyme, Which put 
into the soup, and remove when serving. The juice of half a 
ibmon is an improvement, just befbre serving, as well as a drop of 



* Macaroni is how selling in London at fitepence per pound, and 
maJteg Amr poimda of food when boiled, as No. 408. . 



H&VPfL 11 

Wine, if liatidy. If required Inown, add three tablespoonfbls of 
colouring $ at^ tiee water o/t broth' for thickening, instead of milk. 
The wate^ in which the calf a head ia boiled may be kept, and 
lidded to the atock. This soup will keep for a long time if boiled 
iMseaaionallj, and a little water added ; it shonld never be covered, 
or fermentation will commence ; it shonld be occasionally stirred 
nntil cold. Strong stocks are more likely to turn sour than 
ihin ones, mcxre particularly if they have vegetables and flour 
in them ; to prevent which, when this soup is kept in a basin, 
leave the month exposed to the air. 

15. CofO'keet, — Another very cheap and nutritious soup may be 
made by an ox-foot or cow-heel ; having bought them cleaned 
and partly boiled, stew them till tender, remove the meat from 
the bone, cut them into nice pieces, and proceed as for mock-< 
turtle. 

16. Whit» 8&np, toith VhgetdhUi, ^c.-^Having ciit and fried 
the same quantity of vegetables as No. 1, add them to the white 
toupj fr^ from ineat as Ko. 13 ; simmer and skim off the fat. 
Twd ounces of vermicelli, macaroni, rice> i&D., previously boiled, 
ean be ttsed ih the same way. 

17. Purie^ or Thick Vegetable Soups, — Green JPea. — ^Put 
a quart of large green peas, when cheap, in the pot or pan, with 
two ounces of butter or fat, and the ysame of lean bacon cut 
small, a middling-sized onion^ little mint, two teaspooiifills of 
salt, one of sugar, half the same of pepper, a gill of water ; set 
on slow fire, sthr now and then, dr until no more moisture 
remains onithe bottom of the pan$ add two or three tablespoonfuls 
of flour, stir round quick, and break the peas against the side of 
the pan with a wooden spoon \ moisten with a quart of milk and 
a quart of water, sinmier twenty minutes, or more if old peas, 
and serve. 

This, bj^ leaving Out the bacon, becomes iteagre Soup. Fried 
bread, in small dice, is a good accompaniment. 

If you have any broth (No. 1), use it Instead of the milk and 
water. 

By passing the peas through a hair sieve, which is done by 
breaking and pressing them with the back of the spoon, an 
inviting pur^e is produced ; after which warm up, and serve. 

. 18< PmpkiH Bovp is a Vary £Ktourv\» d2^\:^TCkas^\«^^ 



13 SOUPS. 

France, especially with the juveniles ; and when in season, there 
is not a school, college, hospital, convent, or monastery, where 
it is not made ; a proof that it must be very wholesome. In 
this country, whose climate will not allow its arriving at the 
same size as on the Continent, the Vegetable Marrow, the 
American Butter Squash, and the Mammoth Chwrdf will 
replace them. 

Cut about two pounds of the flesh of the pumpkin or gourd 
into large dice, put it into your pan, with three ounces of salt 
butter or fat ; add two teaspoonf ols of salt, the same of sugar, a 
little pepper, and half a pint of water ; set on the fire, and stew 
gently for twenty minutes. When in pulp, add two table- 
spoonfuls of flour, stir round, and moisten with three pints of 
either milk, skim -milk, or water, boil ten minutes longer, and 
serve with &ied or toasted bread, cut in dice. 

19. Meagre Sonps, — ^This soup is on the list of meagre soups, 
a word used by the Catholics for dishes partaken of in Lent, 
but which is not understood in England ; the word having the 
meaning, want of strength. But this soup, and many others in 
the same category, are well worthy the attention of the middle 
classes of this country, it being only meagre in name, and not 
in fact, as it possesses a large quantity of ^rinaceous matter ; 
bread being also served with it. 

20. Vegetable Marrow, — ^Peel, and take out the inside, if 
seeded, cut in slices about two pounds ; put in saucepan on the 
fire, with a quarter of a pound of butter or fat; add two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, one of sugar, and one quarter of the same of 
pepper, a gill of water, and one onion sliced ; stew gently until 
in pulp, then add two tablespoonfuls of flour, and proceed as for 
pumpkin soup. 

21. Turnip Soup, — Use two and a half pounds of good 
turnips, and proceed as above. 

22. Ited Carrot Soup, — Scrape gently, and cut in very thiu 
slices two pounds of carrots ; put them in the saucepan or pot with 
two onions sliced, two ounces of ham cut small, two cloves, a 
little thyme, salt, pepper, sugar, as above, half a pint of water, 
simmer gently forty minutes, then add three tablespoonftds of 

JJour, and two quarts of broth (No. I)i or use milk, or even water. 



80UPS. 13 

It is mxLoh better passed through a hair sieve, after which warm 
up again and serve. 

White Carrot — ^Proceed as for the red. 

The Swede, Parsnip, Bed and White J?ecf.— Proceed as for 
carrot. 

23. New Spring and Autumn Soup, — ^A most refreshing and 
exquisite soup. At the end of the London season, when the 
markets are full of everything, and few to partake of them, this 
soup can be made as a bonne bouche :-— 

Wash, dry, and cut up four cabbage lettuces, and one coss 
ditto, a handM of sorrel, a little tarragon and chervil, and two 
or three small cucumbers peeled and sliced ; put into a saucepan 
a quarter of a pound of butter, then set in the vegetables ; put 
on a slow fire, and stir often, until there is no liquid remaining ; 
add two tablespoonfuls of flour, mix well, and moisten with two 
quarts of broth (No. 1) or wateri and set it to boil ; when boil- 
ing, add a pint of green peas, two teaspoonfuls of powdered 
sugar, a little pepper and S£dt ; when the peas are tender, serve. 
If you use water, increase the quantity of seasoning. 

JVew CocJc^a-LeeJcie, 

Ma ch^ Amie, — With all due respect to Scotch cookery, I will 
always give the preference, in the way of soup, to their cock-a-leekie, 
even before their inimitable hodge-podge. Having a very old friend, 
from the neighbourhood of Dundee, who used to praise my cock-a- 
leekie, when on a visit to St. John's Wood, I thought I would give 
him the same treat here, and on looking over my frugal store and 
garden of Camellia Cottage, I found I had all that was required, 
barring the bird; but, with a little perseverance and ingenuity, I 
succeeded in producing a very nice soup, although it wanted the 
principal ingredient, so that it deceived not only my husband, but 
my finend from the other side of the Tweed. Here is the receipt : 

24. — ^I bought two pounds of veal cutlet, and cut it into 
pieces, like the flesh from the breast of a fowl, and put them in 
the pan with a quarter of a pound of butter, the same of lean 
bacon, three cloves, two good onions sliced, two teaspoonfuls of 
salt, one of sugar, half a one of pepper, a gill of water ; set it 
on the fire, turn it over until forming a white glaze at the 
bottom, add to it five pints of water, simmer half an horn*, pass 
through a sieve, save the best pieces of the vesi, Iti.'O^^TSi^'^i:^-' 



14 S0UP8. 

time blancli two pounds of leeks, free firom the top green part, 
for ten minutes, in a gallon of water, and drain them ; then boil 
the stock and half the leeks together, till almost in a pulp, then 
add the other half of the leeks and the meat, also eighteen good 
£resh French plums ; simmer half an hour, and serve. 

I must observe that my friend praised it very much for having 
put in the flesh of the fowl only, as he thought, and not the 
whole carcase, which is the way they serve it in Scotland ; an 
exceedingly inconvenient way, as everybody expects a piece of 
the fowl, and you often tear it to pieces in serving. 

25. SimpKfied JSodge-JPodge, — Cut two pounds of iresk 
scrag of muUon into small pieces, which put into a stewpan, 
with three quarts of cold water, and a tablespoonM of salt, one 
ditto of sugar, half a ditto of pepper ; set it on the fire ; when 
boiling, place it at the side to simmer for one hour; keep it 
skimmed; well wash a lai^ge carrot, two turnips, two onions, 
and six small cabbage lettuces ; cut them up, and place in the 
pot, and simmer till done. A pint of green peas, if in season, 
may be added. A carrot grated is an improvement. If in 
winter, use cabbage instead of lettuce. Serve the meat with it. 

26. Variotis Meat Soups. — Giblet. — ^These should be procured 
ready cleaned, but if not, they must be cleaned as No. 459 ; when, 
done, cut them into about twelve pieces, wash them well, ancl 
dry in a doth ; put into a pan a quarter of a pound of butter ok 
dripping, set it on the fire, melt it, then add four ounces of flour, 
stir continually until it begins to brown, add two ounces of lean 
bacon, and two onions or leeks sliced, fry a few minutes longer,; 
put in the giblets, fiy gently for ten minutes, stirring now and 
then, pour over two quarts of water, stir till boiling, and set it 
to simmer ; then add two teaspoonfuls of salt, half one of pepper 
one of sugar, three cloves, a little thyme, bay leaf, and about a 
quarter of a pound of celery well washed and out up small; 
continue simmering until the giblets are tender, remove the fat, 
and serve. A wineglass of sherry and a little cayenne may 
be added. A pound of beef or v^ is, of course, a great im- 
provement. This receipt is for the giblet« of a middle-sized 
turkey. 



27. Hare Soup, 

My VMX9, Eloiss, — Since the alteration in onr circumstances I have 
learnt to practise the most rigid economy, which you will remark in 
this receipt. When I buy a hare, as I sometimes do, for two shil- 
lings akinning it myself, and selUng the skin for fourpenoe, I save 
all th^ hlood in a pie-dish, take out the heart and liver, remo\'ing the 
gall ; I then cut ^e hare into two, ac^s t)ie back, close to the last 
nhs, and P^t this p^ into pieces, using it for soup, and the hindpart 
I keep for roasting the following day. 

28. Sore Soup,-^! then proceed ai for giblet soup, only 
using hall' a pound of either veal, beef, or mutton, cut into dice, 
and put in the pot with the hare. Fifteen minutes before 
•orving, I mix the blood with the heart and liver, which I have 
chopped fine, and boil it up ten minutes ; skim and serve. The 
addition of a little Iq^wn sugar and a glass of port wine is an 
improvement : if no wine, a little stout or porter will improve it. 
It ought to be of a dark brown colour, for which use colouring. 

29. Qx Tail. — Cut them at the joints, and proceed as for 
gibieti^ adding one pint more water for two small tails, and 
sixmaev half an hoar longer, or till done. This should be of a 
brown colour. Vegetables cut into dice may be added. Serve 
when tender : some will take doubly the time cooking, according 
to size. 

30. Ox C^^lr.— Boil half a large cheek for twenty minutes 
in two quarts of water, to set it ; take it out, cut it into thin 
slices, or small pieces, and then proceed exactly as for giblets. 
Serve when tender. 

81. Birnplifted MuUigatatony, quickly done. Lesson 1. — 
Cut in small dice two pounds of leg of veal, no bone, then 
put in the pan with two ounces of salt butter, two teaspoonfuls 
of salt, a quarter that of pepper, a quarter of a pound of onions 
•lioed, and a wine-glass of water. Put it in the pan and place 
on the fire, stir it about until nearly dry ; two ounces of bacon or 
ham is an improvement ; then add a good teaspoonful and a half 
of ouny powder, four of flour, and one of brown sugar ; moisten 
with five pints of water, simmer for an hour or a little longer, 
slpm, and serve. Half a pound of rice> as No. 463, may be served 
^ther with it or sepavate. 



16 80UF& 

Lesson 2.— To the above may be added a small apple, cut in 
Ibin slices, also any other meat may be used, instead of yeal» 
md a little bunch of aromatic herbs ; the meat to remain in the 
toup. 

32. New Mutton Broth.^-'CvLt two pounds of the scrag, or 
any other lean part of mutton, in ten or twelve pieces, put in a 
pan with two ounces of fsit, two teaspoonfols of salt, half of 
pepper, a giJl of water, two middle-sized onions, a good teacupM 
of pearl barley. Set it on the fire, stir round until it is reduced, 
moisten with five pints of water, boil, and skim, simmer two 
hours ; and serve. 

33. Potato Soup. — Proceed as above, omit the barley, add 
two pounds of potatoes, peeled and cut in slices, put thnn in 
when the broth is boiling ; simmer till in pulp, and serve. A 
fisw sprigs of parsley, or the flowers of four marigolds, is aH 
improvement, and, at the same time, an agreeable change. 

34 Ox Tail Soup in Baking Pan, — Divide two ox tails, 
wash them well in cold water, then put them in the pan, with 
three teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, four cloves, a little 
thyme, if handy, two good onions ; add three quarts of water, 
two tablespoonfbls of colouring; put on the cover, place it in a 
moderate oven for three hours to simmer, take off the fat, which 
save for use, and serve. Half a pound of any v^etable, mixed 
or not, cut in dice, can be added with advantage. 

35. Ox Cheek in Baking Pan, — Get half a one ready bonedt 
if not to be had, get the half head with the bone, in whidi case 
they should be broken small and put in the broth ; but it givea 
more trouble than it is worth* The solid meat at threepence 
per pound is more economicaL Wash it well, cut off the white 
part, put the cheek in the pan, and proceed exactly as above; 
only give it three or four hours to bake. A little mixed spice 
improves the flavour. Take the hH off, remove the meat, ci^ it 
into small pieces, put it into the tureen, and pour the broth over. 

36. Cheap Pea Soup, — ^Put into the iron pot two ounces of 
dripping, one quarter of a pound of bacon, cut into dice, two 
good onions sliced ; fry them gently until brownish, then add 
one large or two small turnips, the same of carrote, one leek, 

MDd one bead of celery, all cut thin «nd •IffTitjpg (if all theee 



FISH OK GBIBIBOK. 17 

cannot be obtained, use any of them, but about tbe same amount) ; 
fry for ten minutes more, and then add seven quarts of 
water; boil up, and add one pound and a half of split peas; 
simmer for two or three. hours, until reduced to a pulp, which 
depends on the quality of the pea, then add two tablespoonfuls 
of salt, one of sugar, one of dried mint ; mix half a pound of 
floor smooth in a pint of water, stir it well ; pour in the soup, 
boil thirty minutes, and serve. 

37. The above Meagre. — Precisely as above, only oil or 
butter used instead of bacon or dripping: skim-milk could 
with advantage be used, in which case add three ounces of salt. 
Although this is entirely deprived of animal substances, yet the 
farinaceous ingredients, with the addition of bread, will act 
generously on the digestive organs^ satisfying the heartiest eater. 



GRIDIRON. 

With this primitive utenfdl a great deal may be done in the way of 
oooking, but it requires care, or otherwise great loss of food and 
money wiU be sustained ; a few minutes' constant attention, wheii the 
article is on the gridiron, will save at least twenty per cent., and the 
palate will feel more g^tified. 

I use two kinds of gridirons, each costing very little; one is of cast 
iran, to go on the fire, and the other is of iron wire, made double, to 
hang trcm the bar of the grate before the fire, made so as not to too 
mudh press the ohject cooked within it. The principal care in this, 
as in all kitchen utensils, is never to put them away dirty ; always 
wiping the gridiron after it has been used, and again before you use 
it, and a place kept where it should be hung. 



WHAT I CAN COOK WITH MY GEIDIEON. 

Pirstly, Fish, nearly all sorts, both dried and fresh, either whole or 
b ineoes. I shall not begin with the king of the ocean, but with 
one of the most humble dT its inhabitants, and which daily g^tifies 
the palates of millions ; it is — 

2^ Plain Med ITerring, — Though we have agreed to make xjsft <^ 
every kind of eatable food^ it is still important V> ij^craci^ craXt ^(^<^\m^ 

C 



18 PISH Oir QBJt>lBjO^. 

quality first, for I must tell you, that the quality of herrings varies 
as much, if not more, than any other kind of food; the proper way of 
curing them being as important to know as the quality of the flesh 
itself. This unassuming kind of fish, which we may venture to call the 
poor man's friend, ought to be chosen plump, though not too full ci 
roe, as when they have large roes they are sure to be oily, and cannot 
have taken the salt properly ; they feel softish to the touch, eat stringy, 
and sometimes decay, and emit a bad smell while cooking; these 
are unwholesome : but if hard and firm, the flesh reddish, the roe well 
set, and smell sweet, they are good. The only drawback is that they 
might be too salt, which cannot be avoided, only by cutting the back 
up, and soaking them in lukewarm water for a few hours> and when 
taken out well dried on a cloth, previous to their being cooked. But 
the way to ascertsun if a herring is too salt, is to take the fish in the 
left hand, and pull out a few of the fins from the back, and taste ; 
you may thus find out the quality and flavour. This plan is adopted 
by large dealers. 

38. Wipe your herring; dry it well in a cloth: you may 
slightly split the back, or make a few incisions crossways ; rub 
it with flour, or dress it plainly, by placing the herring on the 
gridiron about six inches over a clear fire, or before it ; turn 
them often, and in five minutes they may be done, according to 
size. 

Or, when it is done, mix a piece of butter with a little mustard 
together, and place inside of it, or rub it over. By opening the 
back, it will do much quicker ; but to keep the essence in it, it 
should be done whole. 

Or, buttet and chopped parsley, and a little vinegar or lemon 
juice. 

Or, butter and chopped fennel and onions, very fine. 

Or, cut off the head, open it up the back with a knife, and 
remove the back bone of the herring ; put in about one ounce 
of butter and chopped parsley, with a slight tint of onion. 
Fold two herrings together in some paper, so that the fat does 
not escape ; broil gently for nearly twenty minutes, and serve. 
The^ butter is to be inclosed between the two herrings. 

The same plan with a bloater and a fresh herring dressed 
tosrether is first-rate. 



'O' 



39. Fresh Herrings. — These should be cleaned and scaled, 

the bead removed, opened on the back, and the gut taken out. 

Make three Blight incisions on eacili &ide,\]iaxo^ ^me ijen^r and 



I^ISH 6K QBIDIROK. 19 

salt over it, broil for ten minutes, and serve plain, or with either 
plain melted hatter or £sh sauce. 

Or, a little mixed pickle chopped fine, with melted hatter, 
also makes a good sauce for herrings. 

40. Maddoch — ^A fine Finnan haddock should he rubbed with 
batter, and plain broiled before the fire for ten minutes, or more 
if rather large, 'keeping it of a yellowish colour, and turning it 
occasionally. If very salt, steep it in water for one hour ; beat 
the thick side down, and broil gently. 

Another Way, — Cut a middling-sized haddock in six pieces, 
which wash in cold water, take them out, and place them either 
in a bason or pan, then pour over about a quart of boiling water, 
ooverhig your bason or pan over, so that no steam can escape ; 
after your haddock has steamed ten minutes, take it out, place 
on a dish, rub over with butter, sprinkle a little pepper over, 
and s^e. 

Sprats and pickled herrings can also be done this way, as 
likewise smoked salmon; you may vary the flavour of this 
simple dish, by adding either a Httle chives, thyme, winter 
savory, bayleaf, parsley, eschalots, or onions. 

41. Whitings, Fresh, should be merely cleaned, cut on each 
side, rubbed over with salt, pepper, and fiour, and broiled for 
seven to ten minutes. Serve with melted butter, or without, 
adding a little vinegar or lemon in the sauce. 

42. Mackerel, — Cut off the point of the head, open it at the 
back, keep it open flat. Pepper and salt, and fennel, if handy ; 
place it between the fish, broil gently for ten minutes, and serve ^ 
with either melted butter, or parsley and butter, or black butter 
sauce. (See No. 422.) 

43. — Cut ac above, open it on the back, chop up a small piece 
of fsA, bacon, with some parsley, one eschalot, or a small onion; 
add a teaspoonful of vinegar ; fill the inside with this stuffing. 
Close it again ; tie it round with a string, broil very gently for 
twelve to fifteen minutes: it depends on the fire and size. 
Serve plain. 

44. — Prepare it as above, and put it into a pie dish, with 
vinegar, salt, pepper, and slices of onion, i!ox «si\iQv^,^S)^\it^^ 
as before. 

c2 



20 KSH ON GRIDIBON. 

45. — Get a tin baking dish, and put into it some chives 
chopped fine, some parsley, salt, pepper, a little vinegar, and 
about one ounce of butter or lard : put the mackerel, cut open 
at the back, and divided in six pieces ; place it on the gridiron, 
turn the pieces, and in about twenty minutes they are done. 
Serve it on the tin dish. Onions may be used. 

46. — ^It may be put into paper, like the herring, No. 38, and 
served without any sauce. 

Small fresh-water fish, such as tench, pike, perch, barbel, &c., 
may be done like mackerel. 

47. Small Soles and Flotmders axe very good when nicely 
broiled in the double gridiron before a clear fire; the time 
depends on the size and the stat« of the fire : they should be 
rubbed with salt, pepper, and flour. 

48. Salmon, Salted, should be cut in small slices, of about 
one quarter of a pound each, slantways, rubbed with either butter 
or oil, and broiled gently. Serve plain, or can be broiled, wrapped 
up in oil paper. 

49. Eels, Dried. — Steep them in water and vinegar for twelve 
hours, rub them with butter, cut them into pieces four inches 
long; broil gently, and serve. These are rather scarce, but very 
good thus. 

60. lEels, Fresh. — Skin and cut them into lengths of four to 
five inches ; broil gently for seven to ten minutes ; have some 
parsley chopped fine, which mix with some butter, and put a 
little in each piece, and serve very hot. They may also be egged 
and bread-crummed (see Fried Eels), or with plain sauce. 

51. Ling, JFVc*^.— Take about a pound of ling, cut it into 
slices of about three-quarters of an inch thick, rub it with pepper 
and salt, and put it on the gridiron over a clear fire ; in about 
ten minutes it will be done. Serve it plain, or with a little 
melted butter and chopped parsley, lemon or vinegar, or with 
a little piece of the liver chopped up and boiled in the sauce. 

Turbot, brill, hake, halibut, plaice, or cod, may be cool^ed 
the same way, either over or before the fire. 



FISH BOILED IK POT; VAX, OR STEW-PAK. 21 



HOW TO BOIL ALL KINDS OP PISH, EITHER WHOLE 

OB IN SLICES. 

GENERAL BECEIPTS. 

Ik all prooeaaes of oookixig that which appears the Amplest is 
generally the most neglected, or at heat hut careletsly done. Many 
persons, unacquainted with the suhject, would imagine that the boiUng 
of fish is so simple, that it merely requires to he put on the fire in a 
saucepan ftiU of water, and let simmer or boil until it has lost its 
transparency, to he fit to eat. To those who are careless and extra- 
vagant, this process may answer yery well; they know no hotter, and 
do not care to improve; but to the careM housewife, who wishes to 
make every penny go as far as possible, by retaining in every article 
of food she cooks the flavour and succulence it possesses (which is, in 
fiust, the basis of economical and perfect cookery, no matter how 
simple it may be), the following simple receipt, if carefully followed, 
will greatly assist: — 

Pint of all, let us remember that all large fish, with the skin 
whole, must be placed on the fire in cold water; if crimped, or cut in 
slices or pieces, in boiling water; if whole, it must not be covered 
with more than two or tbree inches of water, or the skin will crack, 
and not only spoil the appearance of the fish, but will diminish the 
gelatine and gluten it contains, and instead of eating firm and full of 
flavour, it will be soft and woolly, espedally if overboiled. 

Por all kinds of fish, to every quart of water put two teaspoonfbls 
of salt; and if the fish be whole, as soon as it begins to boil, remove 
the cover on one side, cuid let simmer gently till quite done, calcu- 
lating the time according to the size and quality, which .vary so 
mucfa^ that it would be quite impossible to say, " Take a cod, turbot, 
or salmon, or any other fish weighing so many pounds, and boil so 
long;" for according to its quality, the process of cooking will act 
upon it, and therefore in all the following receipts we must make 
use of the word cibout with regard to time, but by all means do it 
rather over than under. If large fish, I generally try it by gently 
pushing a wooden skewer through the thickest part; if it goes 
in easily, it is done. 

Saw to aaeertain if Fiah, whether hoUed, stewed, or fried, is done, 
—If the bone sticks firm to the flesh, or the flesh to the bone, it is 
not done; by the same rule, if quite loose, and the flesh of the fish 
drops off the bone, it is overdone, and you lose some of its qualities. 
For fish in slices try the bone with your knife; if the flesh coro^ 
from it^ it is done; or bj pladng the point q£ a VsQi<^ \i^^^(!SOk '^^(a 



22 IJBU BQILEP IN |»0T^ FAN^ OB ST£W-?AK, 

flesh and tho bone, and on rusing it, if done, the knife will part it 
easily. 

To boil fish whole, sach as tnrbot, plaice, large soles, salmon, cod, 
trout, pike, or any such like fish, it is requisite to have a drainer at 
the bottom of the kettle, or you will be sure to break your fish to 
pieces; and as the cottage of a working man is seldom furnished 
with cooking utensils of this nature, let him cut his large fish in 
pieces, or boil only small ones ; but as, no doubt, the middle classes 
of society will buy largely of this our last work, I think I am in duty 
bound, Eloise, to ^e the following receipt, which, withoQt the fore* 
going explanation, might seem to you out of place. 

62. Ih boil Brill, — ^FLace your fish in the pan, letting it lay 
on the strainer; rub it over with six teaspoonfuls of salt — ^it 
will make it firmer, then add six pints of cold water, or enough 
to cover the fiah ; put your paii on the fire, and when it com-, 
mences to boil, put the lid slightly on one pide, and let simmer 
till done. A brill of about fire or six pounds will be done in 
half an hour after boiling. When sufficiently eooked, lay hold 
of both ends of the drainer, lift your fish out, and let it lay on 
the top of the kettle for two or three minutes, then slip it on 
your ^h on a napkin, and garnish round with parsley, if imy. 
If your fish weighs from three to four pounds, it will take from 
twenty-five to thirty minutes doing on a moderate fire. Anchovy, 
shrimp, lobster, or lemon sauoe> may ie used. 

53. Tm'hot^^Malke two incisions with a knife across the 
back — ^it prevents the whit^ skin on the top cracking ; rub it 
with the juice of a lemon and salt previous to putting the 
water over; let it hrjr about three inches under water. A turbot 
of seven or eight pounds will take about three quarters of an 
hour doing, after the water commences boiling; one of fifteen 
pounds, one hour and thirty minutes. Serve with either of the 
above sauces, or cream sauce No. 424 

64. 8almon,-^A. salmon weighing ten pounds will take one 
hour gently simmering when the water commences boiling. 
Head and shoulders of six pounds, forty minutes ; cod fish of 
the same weight as the salmon, fifteen minutes less ; cod*s head 
and shoulders, ten minutes less ; conger eels, hake, ling, same 
time as cod. The liver and roe of any of the above-named fish 
are very good when boiled and served with them. 

Gurnet, pike, barbel, and carp are boiled the same way. If 



nSH BOILED or POT, PAV| OB ST^-PAN. 83 

dther the inrbot, salinon, or cod is crimped, it will take less 
time to boil, and should be put in boiling water, timing it in 
proportion to the other fish that has been put in cold water. 

65. How to boil Sliced jFV<Jl.— To every pint of water put a 
teaspoonful of salt ; when boiling, add your fish, of whatever 
kind it may be, calculating that a pound of any sort of fish will 
take firom fifteen to twenty minutes ; but ascertain if the bone 
separates easily from the flesh, as described in the preceding direc- 
tions. Halibut and sturgeon will take longer than any other fish, 
plaice less than any. Any fish cut in slices will always eat firmer 
and better if rubbed, previous to boiling, with the quantity of salt 
you otherwise put in the water ; therefore boil the water plain, 
adding the fish and salt at the same time. Mackerel will take 
from fifteen to twenty minutes ; trout and haddocks of the size 
of a mackerel, a little longer ; herrings, firom twelve to fifteen 
mrnntes ; skate, a trifling time longer ; adding a drop of vinegar 
in the water to any of the above fish is an improvement 

56. IHeio ioojf qf boiling Fish, — ^The addition of a few herbs 
and vegetables in the water gives a verv nice flavour to the fish. 
Add, according to taste, a little sliced onions, thyme, bayleaf, 
winter savoiy, carrots, celery, clove, mace, using whichever of 
these ingredients you can procure ; it greatly improves skate, 
firesh haddocks, gurnet, &c Fresh-water fish, which have no 
particular flavour, are preferable done thus, with the addition 
of a little vinegar. Choose whatever sauces you please for 
any of the above fish, firom the series at No. 411. 

67. Salt Msk, Cod, Zing, and Cod- Sounds.*^ Bosk two 
pounds of salt fish for six hours, if not previously soaked, or 
according to the cure ; put them in boiling water, in which some 
parsnips have been previously boiled. Twenty minutes, if the 
fish is thick, will be sufficient; and serve with egg-sauce 
Ko. 411. Proceed the same with cod-sounds. 

Fresk'ioater Msk. — ^These are not much esteemed amongst 
the many, although some are excellent eating, and much in use 
on the continent. 

68. Iknck and perch must be well scaled and cleaned, and put 
into the pan with a pint of water and a teaspoonful of salt, one 
4mm, dieed, three ajrigs of thyme^ bay-leaf, pepper^ i^^^l^ 



24 FISH nr TOT tas dt ovev. 

oeleij, all in propartian ; a wine-glass of vinegar. If ^ey weigK 
one pound boil for half an hour, according to size. Serve with 
any fish-sauce. 

59. JSels may be d<nie as above, with a Ettle scraped horse- 
radish, and served with parsley and butter. Pike and carp may 
be boiled in the same way. If no herbs or v^etables, boil in 
plain salt and water ; but the above is a great improvement. 

JFish in Oven, in Tin Dish, — ^A long square tin dish, like 
those for baking, may be used for this excellent mode of cooking 
fish, by which all the flavour and succulence of it is preserved. 
They may be had of all sizes, and at a very trifling expense. 

60. Lesson 1. — Scale and dean a sole, dry it well, chop up half 
an ounce of onions rather small, put in the dish one ounce of either 
butter, dripping, or oil, and sprinkle a little chopped parsley and 
onions at the bottom ; lay the sole over, season with pepper and 
salt ; mix the remainder of the chopped onions and parsley with 
some bread crumbs, and cover the sole with them, adding three 
or four pieces of butter or fat over, and a wineglassful of either 
wine, ale, or broth, or even water underneath ; put the dish in 
the oven or before the fire until done : a lai^ sole will take about 
an hour. In case the oven is not hot enough to brown the top, 
put the shovel in the fire until it is red-hot, and hold over it. 
Serve in the tin. The oven is far better than the front of a 
fire. 

Plaice may be done the same way, or cut in slices, only it 
takes longer doing. 

61. Whiting are done the same way, but require a sharp oven, 
or they will turn watery. Weaver may be done in the same 
manner. 

Conger JSels, — Cut four slices, half an inch thick, dry well, 
dip each piece into flour, and proceed precisely as for soles. A 
liUle grated horseradish and a little spice will vary the flavour. 

62. Lesson 2. — Codfish, Halibut, Ling, JETake, Sturgeon, and 
Haddock may be done in the same way; and a little stuffing, No. 
466, may be used for every one of them, especially cod-liver 
stuffing. 

63. Lesson 3.^-The remains of boiled fish may always be 
donem this way. A few spoonfuls of melted butter added over 



FISH m TIN PAK IN OVEN. 25 

any of the above fislii before the bread crumbs, makes a change ; 
it eats more delicate, and gives very little more trouble. 

64. Another Way, — ^Place any of the above fish in the dish, 
omitting the onions, if not liked ; add a few herbs or chopped 
mushrooms instead ; and make the following—- 

66. Sauce, — ^Put in a pan a quarter of a pound of flour, 
moisten with a pint and a half of milk or skim-milk, add three 
parts of a teaspoonful of salt, the same of pepper, mix all smooth, 
add a little mixed spice, or two cloves, grated nutmeg, one onion 
cut in four, set on the fire, stir continually, and boil twenty 
minutes ; it must be rather thick ; take out the onions and cloves, 
add to the sauce four ounces of butter, mix it well, pour over the 
fish, and bake as above » a little parsley, chopped, and thrown 
over before sending to table, improves the appearance, and a 
little grated cheese thrown over previous to placing in the oven, 
gives a nice yellow look, and this will be much liked. The 
sauce can be made and kept for some days without spoiling. 
This sauce is nice with every kind of white fish. Bread-crumb 
may be put over the sauce before cooking. The remains of 
previously cooked fish may be dressed in this way. 

66. JELalibut, Conger, Sake, and Ling {receipt for four 
pounds qffish), — Season either of the above rather strong with 
two teaj^)oonfuls of salt, half the same of pepper, the same of 
ground ginger, and two teaspoonMs of chopped onions. Put 
two ounces of fat in a deep tin pan, lay the fish on it, mix two 
ounces of flour with a pint of milk ; when smooth poor over the 
fish, bake for an hour, and serve. 

67. Plaice and large Owmets, — ^The flesb cut from the bone 
may be done as above. They all require to be well done. Any 
of the above dishes may be surrounded by a border of either 
mashed potatoes or boiled rice. 

68. In Oven, — Small Fish, — ^Put in a deep pan four tea- 
spoonfuls of onions chopped, half a pint of melted butter, a gill 
of vinegar; lay over six pounds of any common fish, season over 
with two teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper ; place it in the 
oven for twenty minutes, then turn it, baste it with the sauce 
now and then ; dish it up, and pour sauce over, or serve in the 
pan ; if the sauce should be too thin^ boil on the fire till it gets 
of a thiciUih substanoe. 



26 FISH IN FBTIKa-PAK« 

69. Mackerel in JPie Dish, — Open two or three mackerel on 
the back, cut off the tail and head, rub the inside and outside 
with salt, pepper, and chopped parsley ; mix in a bason half a 
pint of melted butter, No. 410, add to it a teaspoonM of chopped 
fennel and parsley, and a tablespoonf ul of vinegar ; put the fish 
in the dish, pour the sauce over, and well bread-crumb it ; put 
it in the oven for half an hour or more, and serve. The roe may 
be left in the fish, or chopped up and mixed with the sauce. 
Balls of cod-liver may be added. 

70. Pickled Mackerel, JPlain TFoy.— <]Jut two onions in thin 
slices, mix with salt and pepper and a little mixed spice or 
peppercorn ; then have four mackerel ready, with the gills and 
gut removed, but not cut ; put a little of ilie onions inside, and 
rub the outside with them ; and then rub them with flour, put 
them in the dish, put in the remainder of the onions, add half a 
pint of vinegar and a gill of water ; bake in a slow oven for one 
hour ; use cold. They will keep a long time. 

71. M^sh JSerrings, Sprats, and Smelts may all be done the 
same way, only they require lees time to bake. Any other kind of 
fish, if in smsJl pieces, may be done this way, and is excellent in 
summer with salad. The flavour or the pickling may be im- 
proved by adding three cloves, two blades of mace, some pepper^ 
corns, a little garlic, and some sweet-herbs, according to taste. 



FEIED FISH. 

The great art in filing fish is;, to have it itee ftom grease^ and 
in that state it is one of the most delicate descriptioiis di food that 
can be given to the invalid, and at the same time the most nourish* 
ing. The sudden immersion in the fat solidifies the albumen in the 
flesh of the fish, and renders it easy of digeHtion; the coating of bread- 
crumbs prevents the fat penetrating into the fish, and when eaten by 
the invalid, the skin should be removed, and only the white flesh 
partaken of. 

The great point is to have plenty of fat in the pan, fi>r it is not 
wasted, fiir from it. If it is kept at a proper degree of heat, in the 
same pan a sole may be fried, and at the same time an apple iritter; 
neither will taste of the other, proving that the high degree of heat 
in the fat prevents the flavour of the object immersed In it escaping, 



FISH IN FEYING-PAN, 27 

72. Fried Sole, — ^Put a pound or two of fat into a deep 
firying-pan ; wliilst it is getting hot, take a sole, of course cleaned, 
cut off the fins and tail, wipe it with a cloth, egg it, and cover 
with bread-cnimhs all over, shake off the loose crumbs, and 
press it, and lay the sole in the fat, the white part, or belly, 
downwards ; the fat must be at a proper heat, which is ascer- 
tained by throwing a pinch of crumb into it; if it hisses, it is ready; 
if it bums, it is over-done ; if of a nice colour it will do. Timi 
it once while doing. A middle-sized sole will take ten minutes. 
Take it out, place it on a cloth ; if any fat is on it, it will come 
off. Dish it on a napkin, on which it hardly ought to show 
a spot of grease. This receipt is applicable to all kinds of fish ; 
but large round fish should not be fHed whole, only the fillets, or 
thin siloes. Whitings may be fried whole, like sole, and will 
take about ten minutes ; flounders, about five or six minutes ; 
smelts, gudgeons, four or five minutes. The last should be fried 
as Ibw as possible at a time, and served orisp. 

73. Large soles, plaice, cod, halibut, conger eels, ling, hake, 
weaver, should all be fried in fillets, or thin slices ; the sole should 
be cut down the back bone ; then run the knife under the flesh, 
dose to the bone, and cut it off; thus each sole will make four 
fillets ; or they may be cut across in pieces of three inches^ with 
the bone in. 

74 Fl^ce do in the same way, cut in pieces one inch wide. 
Cod should be filleted lengthways, or in slices. Hake, haddock, 
and gurnet, the same ; halibut, ling, and conger eel, in very thin 
slices, that is, not more than half an inch thick. Salt should be 
sprinkled over them half an hour previous. All these should 
be egged and bread-crumbed, as described in sole. All fish 
cooked in this way are excellent cold, as a salad, in summer. 
Slices should be broken, or cut, for about a pound of fish, and 
pat into a bowl, with two tablespoonfrds of vinegar, four of 
oil, half do. of chopped parsley, half a teaspoonful of salt, quarter 
do. of pepper. Toss it up well, that it may mix; it is very 
cooling, and makes a light supper. A little fresh salad, as lettuce, 
endive, &c, makes it still more so. Slices of cooked potatoes, 
lentils, and haricots, may be introduced. 



28 FISH IN PRYING-PAK, 

75. Fried Fish, Jewish Fashion, 

This is another excellent way of frying fish, which is constantly in 
nse by the children of Israel, and I cannot recommend it too highly ; 
80 much so, that various kinds of fish which many people despise, are 
excellent cooked by this process; in eating them many x)ersons are 
deceived, and would suppose them to be the most expensive offish. The 
process is at once simple, effective, and economical; not that I would 
recommend it for invalids, as the process imbibes some of the fat, 
which, however palatable, would not do for the dyspeptic or in- 
valid. 

76. Proceed thus : — Cut one or two pounds of lialibut in one 
pieoe, lay it in a dish, cover the top with a little salt, put some 
water in the dish, but not to cover the fish ; let it remain thus 
for one hour. The water being below, causes the salt to pene* 
trate into the fish. Take it out and dry it ; cut out the bone, 
and the fins off; it is then in two pieces. Lay the pieces on 
the side, and divide them into slices half an inch thick ; put 
into a frying pan, with a quarter of a pound of fat, lard, or 
dripping (the Jews use oil) ; then put two ounces of flour into a 
soup-plate, or basin, which mix with water, to form a smooth 
batter, not too thick. Dip the fish in it, that the pieces axe 
well covered ; then have the fat, not too hot, put the pieces in it, 
and &y till a nice colour, turning them over. When done, take 
it out with a slice, let it drain, dish up, and serve. Any kind 
of sauce that is liked may be used with it ; but plain, with a 
little salt and lemon, is excellent. This fish is often only three* 
pence to fourpence per pound; it containing but little bone 
renders it very economicaL It is excellent cold, and can be 
eaten with oil, vinegar, and cucumbers, in summer time, and is 
exceedingly cooling. An qq^ is an improvement in the batter. 

The same fish as before mentioned as fit for frying, may be 
fried in this manner. Eels are excellent done so ; the batter 
absorbs the oil which is in them. 

Flounders may also be done in this way. A little salt should 
be sprinkled over before serving. 

77. In some Jewish families all this kind of fish is fried in 
oil, and dipped in batter, as described above. In some &milie8 
they dip the fish first in flour, and then in q^^, and fry in oiL 
This plan is superior to that fried in fat or dripping, but more 

expensive. 



TASI0U8 DI0HZ8 US TttE TBOV VCYS. 29 

Kanj of the abore-mentioned families have stated days on 
which they fry> or stew their fish, which will keep good several 
days in summer, and I may almost say, weeks in winter ; an4 
being generally eaten cold, it saves them a deal of cooking. Stil^ 
I must, say that there is nothing like a hot dinner. 



THE THREE-LEGGED IRON POT. 

INTBODUCTIOy, 

Dkabmt Fsnnn>,~Yon are aware that every cottage thronghont 
the land has a peculiarity In cookery and cooking utensils, which 
nothing can alter. One of tliem has a great ckum on our g^titude, 
wliich neither time nor place can erase. War, famine, epidemic, 
revolutions, which have from time to time shaken the foundation of 
mighty empires, has not caused a wrinkle to appear on bis nobli 
brow even in this miraculous age of discovery, which has created 
railways, steam, electricity, photography, and by the hut powerful' 
•gent we are actually enabled to take the strongest fbrtiflcations 
without bloodshed, 

Kot even one of the miracles of the nineteenth century has a(&cted 
his noble position one Jot : he is a posterity in himself, and no throne 
ever has been, or ever will be, stronger than his. 

In winter, when all nature is desolate, when hoary Frost spreads 
his white mantle over the myriads of defonct flowers, then this 
homely king rallies round him bis subjects, to entertain, comfort, and 
feed them, and make them happy, even when nature has almost refused 
to humanity her powerful sendee. This mighty monarch, Eloise, is no 
other than the tluree«legged iron pot, who has done such good service 
tor so many generations^ and win continue to do so if properly treated 
by his subjects. 

So much fbr his moral virtues; but let us see what he has been 
doing, and if we can make him do anything more, and that in ac- 
oordance with the enlightenment oi the nineteenth century. You 
will perhaps say, that it is dangerous to try to make any change in 
a government ao well established* Not at all ; my object is not to 
interfere with his noble position, and deprive him of his rights. On 
the contrary, I only wish to enrich bis kingdom^ which I am sure uo 
sensible monarch can object to, * 

Now for the immortal Pot'luck, A\l i\ici^ y^v^\^V» «x^ Vyc «s«J^ 
fontainio^ two gtdUnm, 



30 TABI0U8 DISHES IK THE IBOK l^Of. 

78. Salt Berf. — Put in a piece of six pounds, add four quarts 
of cold water ; boil gently for three hours. One hour before 
serving, wash clean, and cut the roots away of two cabbages, 
which cut up in four pieces, and put in the pot with the meat. 
When done, drain the cabbage, aud place round the beef on the 
dish, and serve. Leave the broth or liquor from the meat on 
the fire, put in two pounds of split peas, a little pepper and brown 
sugar ; boil slowly till done, and put by, uncovered, for next day, 
to drink with the cold meat. If more salt and pepper is required, 
add it : if, on the contrary, it should be too salt, add more water 
and a pound of potatoes. Or skim-milk may be added, and 
about one pound of toasted bread, cut into dice, and put in the 
soup when serving ; or half a pound of flour, mixed with a pint 
of water. Every part of salted beef may be boiled thus, 
using about four ounces of vegetables to every pound of meat, 
instead of cabbage. Turnip-tops, brocoli-sprouts, green kale, 
carrots, turnips, Swedes, parsnips, &A, Sic., may be used. 8uet 
dumpling may be served with it. 

The pieces of beef generally salted are the brisket, edge hone, 
round, flank, skirt. The ribs, when salted, are very fine, and 
much more economical than wh^i roasted. This receipt if 
adopted for a fum-house; but two pounds of beef, and the 
other things in proportion to be used for a small family. Bice 
may be tised instead of peas. 

79. Salt Pork. — ^Put four pounds of salt pork, either leg, 
loin, head, belly, or feet, into the pot with six quarts of water, 
and one pound of split peas. In one hour add four greens, cat 
small, or turnip-tops, leeks, parsnips, &c. &c., placed in a net» 
and boiled in the pot. When done, take them out, and keep 
warm. Mix half a pound of flour with one pint of water, ai^ 
put in the pot, and stir it round. Boil for ten minntes, and serve 
the meat and soup separate, and vegetables round the meat. 
Pieces of bacon, knuckles of ham, cooked in the same way, are 
very nice, only they will take rather longer boiling. A tea- 
spoonful of pepper may be added. 

You will perceive, my friend, that I have already opened a large 
field for our old hero, adding in a few lines about twenty new 
subjects in the shape of receipts to his kingdom. 

m r^a/.-^The flesh of the ca\£ \)emg o^ tha.t light nature, 



TAmOUS DISHES tJSf THI! iBOlt POf. 31 

requires more the process of roasting, or stewing, than of hoiling, 
except for the purpose of making broth, for which purpose it is 
superior to any other kind of meat. The only part which is 
usually done so, is the knuckle, and if cooked in the following 
way, is not an expensive dish : — Get a knuckle of veal and a 
small knuckle of ham, weighing together about six pounds. Or 
in the absence of the ham, or bacon, two pounds of the belly of 
pork. Put this in the pot, and fill up with six quarts of water 
and four spoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, two carrots, cut in dice, 
two onions and two turnips. BoiT gently for three hours, tako 
out the meat and serve with mashed turnips, or potatoes. Plain, 
or parsley and butter over. The liquor boiled up with a pound 
of ground rice, mixed in a quart of cold water. Put in and boil 
for half an hour, and save for the next day's use. When boiled 
for next day, add any remains of the veal, cut small, and put 
in it, with a little milk, if handy. Whole rice, or peas, may be 
used. Pour Swedish turnips may be boiled with the veal, and 
eaten with it, mashed up with pepper, salt, and butter. Vege- 
tables may be omitted when scarce. 

81. Mutton. — The leg, neck, breast, head, and feet, aro 
most oflen boiled ; sometimes the shoulder, when not too &t, 
is boiled, smothered in onions. Whichever joint it is, the 
pot must be filled with water, to which six teaspoonfols of 
salt and one of pepper have been added. Put in the joint and 
ten peeled turnips. When either joint is done, take it out, and 
serve the turnips round. Parsley and butter, capers, or chopped 
gherkins, mixed with melted butter, may be served with boHed 
inutton. 

Save the liquor for the next day, add to it half a pound of 
Scotch barley and a pound of any vegetables that may be in 
season. BoU for one hour, and serve with toasted bread. Or 
instead of barley, two pounds of potatoes, sliced, and boiled 
with the vegetables, make a nice soup. For every pound of 
this joint, let it cook fifteen minutes. 

82. JECam. — A ham of about fourteen pounds will take about 
four hours, and ought to be boiled in a three-gallon pot. Put 
in the ham, knd fill up with water : skim off the scum as it 
rises ; if wanted to be eaten cold, allow it to get cold in the 
pot. If it is an old ham, it should be soaked foY t^^V^'^\\ss^a.^ 
preTiousl/, Borne carrots, turnips, aad o\iiet N^^<Ei\a5^«ye»^"Qi»:| 



32 OK PfiUdE&TIira fiAlId AND HktO^, 

be boiled, witb also a bunch of sweet herbs, which will 
improve the flavour of the ham. If the liquor is used for soup, 
a couple of cow heels may be boiled with it, which may be eaten 
separately, or cut up in the soup, which should be strained. Or, 
fry ten onions, sliced, until nearly brown ; add to them half a 
pound of flour, stir well in, then add some of the liquor from the 
ham, until it is rather thick ; put into a tureen, and pour more 
over it, and serve with slices of bread. Or instead of onions, 
use cabbage or leeks. 

As many cottagers kill their own pigs, and cure the hams and 
bacon, and often boil only half the ham at a time, the knuckle 
part should be boiled last, and the yellow fat, if any on it, should 
be cut away. 



IMPORTANT OBSERVATIONS ON CUBING HAMS AND 

BACON. 

Tons of ham and bacon are yearly wasted throughout the country 
for want of proper attention and judgment, in allowing the fat to get 
rancid. Instead of han^g them up, as is the custom, to a low 
ceiling, in every cottage or fiirmer's kitchen, the consequence of 
which is, that the continual heat turns the fat and flesh of such a quad- 
ruped as dry as a mummy, while, by the following simple rules, they 
would keep equally as long without undergoing this antique Egyptian 
process. 

To prove to you the truth of my remarks — about six months ago, 
I was on a visit to our excellent friend, William Tucker, Esq., of 
Coriton Park, near Axminster, Devon, when all the neighbourhood 
was searched to get a couple of home-cured country hams ; however, 
no such thing was to be found ; every one of them bought were dried 
to chips. GHbe fat of the first one we operated on, when sawn in 
two, (for we could not cut it in the ordinary way,) was of a blackish 
yeUow, and the meat of the same colour as rotten wood, only much 
harder. Being anxious to see the person who had so effectively 
"preserved" this ham, a very natty, clean old woman was brought to 
me ; and on showing her the bone, and asking her for the receipt, 
she said she did not know how it was done, but her son Thomas did, 
and she knew he would be glad to give me the receipt, to which 
proposition I strongly objected, at the same time writing down the 
following receipt, which she said her son would doubtless |bllow. 
After you have pickled your ham or bacon for either winter or 
summer use, dry the moisture with a doth, and hang it in your 



VABIOUS DISHES IK THE BLACK POT. 33 

kitchen for about three weeks, or tmtil the outside begins to crystal- 
lize ; then remove it to your dairy, or any other dampish place, for a 
few days; then place it in your kitchen again, and so on, backwards 
and forwards, three or four times, till perfectly dry, and quite sound; 
if any part should happen to get yeUow and randd, scrape it off, 
rubbing the spot with a mixture of salt, pepper, and flour; but 
be sure you don't keep it eighteen months, as it appears the old 
woman's son did; so that, with all the indulgence of nature, who 
allows us to preserve meat, by means of pickling it, for some con- 
siderable time, yet common sense tells us, that it will not last for 
ever. Ham, when well cured by experienced hands, can be kept 
good for several years. The fault I before mentioned, exists in every 
county, not excepting Westmoreland and Yorkshire, which two latter, 
being ham counties, of course the evil does not run to so great an 
extent. I daresay, Eloise, you will fancy this ooimtry conversation 
rather too long to be pleasant. You may be right, as far as its value 
as reading for the drawing-room goes, but let me tell you again, that 
if these simple plans were adopted, more than one hundred thousand 
tons of meat would be saved throughout the kingdom yearly, and 
made to feed man rather than wasted as it is at present. 

LAMB. 

I think I onght not to mention this innocent and playful little 
animal, but on second consideration, and remembering that King 
Alfred once sought shelter in a cottage, and it being possible that 
from accident, or some other cause, that a cottager might find him- 
self unexpectedly honoured by a guest, to whom he would like to 
give a delicacy, which could not be done better in the elaborate 
kitchens of the most wealthy, than in the old iron pot of the most 
humble abode. 

It is mre that lamb is partaken of by the labourer, as he requires 
more strengthening nourishment for his hard-looking fi'ame, which 
can digest everything eatable, without the aid of medical science. 
These delicacies are left to those who would give a great deal if tlicy 
could possess the good appetite and the organic mastication of a 
labouring man. 

83. Boiled Leg of Lamb, — Pat six qnarts of water into the pot, 
with six teaspoonfals of salt ; when boiling put in the lamb, boil 
dowly for one hour ; remove the scum as it rises ; serve it with 
plain melted butter, or parsley and butter, or caper sauce ; boiled 
tnmips or spinach. The broth may be made into soup the 
same as the mutton. 

84 Boiled 5a6&tV.*-Stuff a rabbit as Ko, 4fi4i\ igviV, m Y^H^^KCk. 



34 VAxiovs mmrn in tee black I'ov. 

or twelve large ontons, with four quarts of water ; boil thetn till 
tender, then add the rabbit, simmering slowly for one hour, if 
large; dish it up, keeping it warm; take out the onions, chop 
them, and put into a pan or the pot with two ounces of butter, 
half a teaspoonful of pepper, four of flour ; mix all well to form 
a pur^e, add a pint of milk, boil twenty minutes, stirring now 
and then; pour over the rabbit and serve ; little pieces of pickled 
pork boiled with it is an improvement. Use the broth as above. 

85. Our Christmas IXnner^^SmaU Boiled Turkey. — ^Put 
into the pot four quarts of water, three teaspoon^ils of salt^ 
one of pepper, have tlie turkey ready stuffed, as No. 464; when 
the water boils, put in the turkey, and four pieces of saitt 
pork or bacon, of about half a pound each, or whole, if you 
prefer it; also add half a pound of onions, one of white 
celery, six peppercorns, a bunch of sweet herbs ; boil slowly 
for one hour and a half, mix three ounces of flour with two 
ounces of butter; melt it in a small pan, add a pint of the 
liquor &om the pot, and half a pint of milk, the onions and 
celery taken out of the pot, and cut up aiid added to it; boil for 
twenty minutes, until it ia thickish ; serve the turkey on a dish, 
the bacon separate, and pour the sauce over the bird. 

A turkey doae in this way is delicious. With41ie liquor, in 
which you may add a little colouring, a vermicelli, rice, or clear 
vegetable soup can be made ; skim off the fat, and serve. 

The above with a plum pudding boiled the day before, and 
rewarmed in boiling water in the pot whilst eating the soup 
and turkey, and the addition of potatoes, baked in the embers, 
under the grate, is a veiy excellent dinner, and can all be done 
with the black pot. 

Fowls and Chickens may be done the same way, giving only 
half-an-hour for chickens, and three quarters for fowls. 

86. A cheap Tripe Dinner, — Sometimes the cuttings of tripe^ 
or pig's chitterlings, or even a cow-hed, can be had very cheiqp, in 
which case ihej should be cut into square pieces ; peel eight good 
onions, and ten large potatoes, for every four pounds of the meat ; 
lay some of the potatoes at the bottom of the pot, season with salt 
and pepper, then some of the tripe, then onions and potatoes^ 
until all is in ; then mix a quarter of a pound of flour with three 
guarts of irater; mix smooth, and boil gently for two hours | 



Kam and senre. This will make enough, food for a family of 
tweke, and cost about one shilling and sixpence. 

87. Calve^9 Sead and Feet — If by any chance either of 
these articles are to be bought cheap, which is sometimes the 
case in London or any market town, cut the head open, take 
out the brains, put it in the pot with six teaspoonfuls of 
salt, two of pepper, four onions, parsley, and a little thyme ; 
put in six quarts of water, in which mix one quarter of a pound 
of flour ; being placed, set it to boil gently, skim it occasionally, 
boil three hours ; just before serving, add a wineglass of vinegar ; 
•erve with parsley and butter, alone, or with the brains, cleaned 
and boiled in it ; sharp sauce, No. 411. 

The feet may be boiled in the same way. The liquor makes 
•n ezoeUent soup £)r the next day, either thick or thin, and with 
or without vegetables^ or pur^ of peas, carrots, turnips, <&c., 
or moek turtle. 

86. Sheep* 9 Sead and JFW^.*— Take two sheeps* heads and cut 
the sameascalfs head, and put in pot, with hsdfa pound of pearl 
barley, four spoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, two carrots, four 
oniooB, and four quarts of water; boil for about two hours, 
cr until tender, and serve* 

Four feet added to it improve the broth. The heads when 
cooked inay be egged and bread-crumbed over, and then put in 
tiie oven to brown for fifteen to twenty minutes. Eat it either 
plain or with sharp sauce. Calves* head is very good done the 
same. 

89. Curry Fishj-^VrA, into the pot four onions and two 
apples, in thin slices, some bayleaf, thyme, or savory, with a 
quarter of a pound of &.t or dripping, three tablespoonfuls 
of salt, one tablespoonfol of sugar, and fry for fifteen minutes ; 
then pour in three quarts of water and one pound of rice ; boil 
till tender ; add one tablespoonM of curry-powder, mixed in a 
iittift water ; cut up six pounds of cheap fish the size of an e%^ ; 
•id to iiifi above, and boil for twenty on thirty minutes, according 
te tibe kind of fish. If salt fish is used, omit the salt. K no 
bwbty da without^ but always use what you cau get. 

90. 8a»ory Mice, — ^Take six pounds of bones, broken. «cqa31% 
boil in ej^ qwts of water for three boTura^'hsLNm^ ^^t^'^^^c^ 

p8 



36 VAMOtrS DISHES IK T?HE BLACK POT, 

tablespoonfuls of salt, a bunch of thyme, bayleaf, and savoiy, 
, if any. When done, pour it into an earthen pan, remove the 
bones; the fat will do for puddings; or put the fat or two 
ounces of dripping into the pot, with two onions cut thin, half a 
pound of either carrots, turnips, or celery, cut thin; two tea- 
spoonMs of sugar; put it on the fire for fifteen minutes, 
stirring it continually ; add half a pound of oatmeal, and mix 
well ; then pour over the stock that has come from the bones. 
Add one pound of rice previously washed ; boil till tender, and 
serve. This will be found both cheap and nutritious. 

91. Sice Panada. — Boil one pound of rice in four quarts of 
water ; add one tablespoonful of powdered sugar, and two table* 
spoonMs of salt. Mix with some cold water one pound of flour 
or oatmeal, so that it forms a thin paste; stir in three teaspoonfrils 
of curry powder, add all to the rice, boil for twenty minutes, 
and serve. A quarter of a pound of butter or dripping may be 
added. Should it be preferred sweet, use a quarter of a pound 
of treacle instead of curry. This wiU make ten pounds of solid 
food, and is good either hot or cold. 

92. Peas Panada, — Cut a quarter of a pound of fat bacon, 
or pork, into small dice ; put it in the pot with two onions, sliced, 
or leeks : fry for ten minutes ; keep stirring ; then add one and 
a quarter pound of split peas, two teaspoonfuls of salt, one of 
sugar, and one gallon of water. Boil till it becomes a pur^, 
or pulp ; then add sufficient oatmeal or flour to make it vay 
thick; simmer twenty minutes; keep stirring it, and serve. 

Indian meal may be used, but it must be soaked ; the husk, 
which floats, removed, boiled for two hours, and then added to 
it. If there are no onions, Tise some sweet herbs. 

This may be made sweet by omitting the bacon, and using 
a quarter of a pound of treacle, and when cold, may be cut to 
pieces, and given to children as food. 

93. Cheese Stirabout. — ^Nearly fill the iron pot with water, 
throw in tliree table tablespoonsful of salt ; when boiling, throw 
in by degrees some Indian meal, — ^the quantity depends on the 
quality ; on an average, if the water is soft, one pound to everj 
two quarts ; that would be four pounds. When well stirred, 

remove the husk with a spoon, which floats on the top. Then 
throw in one poxmi of strong dieese) \)Tokfiuui pieces, or grat^ 



TABIOUB DISHES IN THB BLACK POT. 37 

Boil for twenty minutes, and serve. Or, put it on a greasy baking- 
tin, throw some more cheese on the top, put in the oven for 
twenty minutes, and serve. Or, allow it to get cold, cut in 
pieces, and fry, 

94k Indian Meal Poullenta, — Boil the meal as above (it 
must be very thick), without the cheese ; mind that it is stirred 
up a great deal, or it will catch to the bottom of the pot ; pour 
some into a baking-dish well greased ; cut some beef or pork, 
sausages, saveloys, or black puddings, into slices, and place them 
on it. Cover diis over with some more meal from the pot ; 
bake for twenty minutes, and serve. 

This is an excellent and cheap dish, and well worthy the 
attention of all classes, now that flour has become so expensive ; 
it is fit for the tables of the most wealthy, if a strong gravy is 
poured over it when served. This may be made sweet with 
either jam, treacle, or brown sugar. 

96. Another Way, — For the above proportion, mince about 
two pounds of meat, as No. 156, or liver. Mix well, then let 
it get cold; cut and fry anyhow you like; of course omit 
savdoys and black-puddings when meat is used. 

In France, ox-liver Ib used in soup, to flavour the broth, and many 
people eat it, fried or stewed. If it is in use in cooking in one 
ooontry, why should we not give it a trial. The proverb says, 
"what 3s good for the g^oose is good for the gander," therefore what 
18 good fbr our n^hbours and allies cannot possibly be bad for us. 
An ox in France Ib uncommonly like an English one, and these 
quadrupeds are equally as particular in their selection of food as 
ours; and if the calves', pigs', sheep's, and lambs' liver is flt for the 
tables of the wealthy, why should not that of the ox be deemed good 
£3r human food. 

It is our duty, Elmse, in this work, to bring eveiy wholesome 
kind of cheap fbod to the notice of the poor, so that with a little 
exertion, they may live, and live well, with the few pence they earn, 
instead ot living badly at times, and most extravagantly at others, 
and not to allow nourishing food to be wasted, as it is at present. 
In many parts, and even in Ireland, during the year of the famine, 
those who were starving would not partake of ox-liver. These are 
boaght up in that country, put into casks, with salt, sent over to a 
sea-port in England; they are then subjected to a cold pressure, by 
which ito liquid i9 extracted^ which I9 used for ad>3)to»i\ja^<^ «dl 



38 VARIOUS DISHES m THE BLACK POP. 

article in Tmiversal use ; the remans are then dried in otSDM, pounded^ 
and sent back to Ireland to be made into saufL 

96. Stewed Ox Heart and Liver, — ^Wash the heart wellj 
chop a few onions and sage, and mix with it a teaspoon- 
ful of salt, and a quarter of pepper. Pat it in the hesrt, 
and lay it in the pan with the top part downwards. Cut one 
pound of suet in quarter of a pound pieces ; also two pounds f£ 
ox liver, and a little bacon, if handy. Season with three tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, four or five onions, three pounds 
of potatoes, and pour over three quarts of water. Place it in 
the oven for three hoars, and it is done. 

In this dish, dried pulse of any kind, previously soaked, may 
be used with advantage, such as the white harico bean, the dried 
Windsor bean, the lentil bean ; all of which may be had in the 
winter time in great abundance ; and it is to be regretted that 
there is not a large consumption in this country of pulse, as the 
crop does not rob the ground so much as the potato, and is con- 
siderably cheaper than flour. Dried yellow or green peas may 
be used. 

They are a good article for a tradesman to keep in stocky as 
they do not deteriorate, like the potato, and only require to be 
known, to be equally as much esteemed as that root. 



FRENCH POT AU FEU. 

{This may also he done in the iron saucepan, stewpan, or 

haJdng-pan,) 

I cannot expect that this truly national soup of France can be 
made to perfection, or done with so much care as in that eoontry, 
therefore I have simplified it, and shall call it The French CoHoffe 
Fot au Feu, or French Soup. 

97. Put a gallon of water in the pot, put four pounds of the 
buttock of beef, or shin, or five pounds of the thick part of the leg, 
three teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, fbur onions, four leeks cot 
in pieces, two carrots, and two good-sized turnips, three cloves, one 
burnt onion, or three spoonfiils of colouring; set it on the fire; when 
beginning to scum, skim it, and place the pot on one side of the fire. 
Add now and then a drop of cold water; it will make it clear. Boil 
four hours. Bread sliced, put into the tureen, and pour the broth, 
with some of the v^etables, over j serve the meat separateii and the 



TASIOUS DISHES IN ¥HB mok SAUCfiPAK. 39 

If tbis dmple reeerpt is weQ attended to, yoa wffl find it u very 
good soap and bouilli. If yoo run ihort of any of the regetabk^ 
make it gfood with oiben. If bo burnt onions or ooSouring^ the soup 
will be white, instead of a sherry ooloor ; but still it wiU be good. 
In France they always put in half a pound of ox-liver to every four 
po«uKb of mei^ I am ssre they are too good judges over the water, 
to spoil their mnpi in ftct» there the ox-UTer eests aa rnnoh as the 
. meat— -dxpenee per pound ^•ther^ore it it oot with i^ vi^w of 
savings but to make it better. 

9Ta. Jf^reneh Bagtmi of MiUUm.'^'Siki in tibe pot a quarter 
<yf a potmd of dripping : when hot; peel and eat twenty small 
turnips, or ten large ones, into pieces the size of a walnut ; put 
them into the iat^ and isj until brownish. Take them out, then 
put into the ikt a quarter of a pound of flour ; stir round until 
Drown. Tou have prepared four pounds of scrag of mutton, cut 
in small pieces ; put them in> and atir round ; then add enough 
water to cover the meat ; stir until boiling. MThen the mutton 
is nearly done, which you will find by trjring it with a fork, 
add thf tumipa} season with three teaspoonfVils off salt, one of 
pepper, the dame of brown sugar, and a little bit of scraped 
garlic, if handy. Any part of mutton may be used. Ba^out <^ 
real or lamb majr he done in this manner. 

The following receipts to be done in a pid^-sized iron 
saucepan. 

98. Stewed JSeU,'^VfA into a saucepan a teaspoonlul of 
chopped onions, half a pint of melted butter, No. 410, one tea- 
spoonfol of anchovy sauce, one of vinegar, and one teaspoonful of 
colouring. Cut up one pound of eels in pieces two inches long, 
Tub them in a little flour and salt, put them in the pan, and stew 
lor half an hour, and serve with some toasted br^ad round. A 
little ale or wine may be used instead of vinegar, and the sauoa 
should be thick. 

99. Stetoed JEeU* Ko, 2.*'^Cut them as above, dip in flour, 
and partly fry them in fat a few minutes, and stew them as abovos 
and serve with toast. 

100. Slels Stewed White, No. 3.-^Cnt up one pound, as 
before ; put them in the pan with half a pint of milk and three- 
4[iiarters of a teaspoonful of salt, half of 'pepper, half an onion, 
in slices, and some sprigs of parsley. Stew gently for twenty 
minutes ; mix one ounce of butter with ha\i oia qmxl«:^ q1 ^^^a> 



40 YABIOUS DISHES IN THE IBON SAUCEPAN. 

put in your stewpon in small pieces, stir round gently, boil foj^ 
five minutes, or longer, if large, and serve. The juice of a 
lemon, or a little vinegar, is an improvement. Lampreys 
and weaver may be done the same. 

101. Cod*8 Hard Boe, — ^Tie a cod's roe in a doth, place in 
a pan two quarts of water and two teaspoonfuls of salt ; put in 
the roe, boil gently for one hour, take it out, cut off as much as 
you require, put it in the dish, pour over parsley and butter, and 
serve. Or e^^ sauce, or plain, with a little butter and pepper. 
The remainder, when cold, may be cut into slices and semi- 
fried, as fish. 

102. Cod^s Sotmds, Melt, and Frill, — ^Nothing is more de- 
licate than this dish. Boil thirty minutes in boiling salt and 
water. Dish it up, pour thick og^ sauce over, or fennel sauce, 
or black butter. No. 422. The first-mentioned, if salted, must 
be well soaked. 

Truly, my dear Eloise, I camiot but return you my very best 
thanks for the incessant inquiries you make as to the state of my 
health. 

Tou blame me in your last letter for having visited the small town 
of Castleford, as also the beauioful little village of Methway, while 
the cholera was ra^ng in those places. Allow me to impress upon 
your mind that, first of all, I have no personal fear of the epidemic^ 
and that I take a deal of interest in endeavouring to ascertain the 
caase. Or partly so, of such an awful visitation, as my letter of the 
25th of March, which has appeared in the public press, will partly 
explain the cause of this calamity.* In that letter I ought to 
have included Leeds, Hull, and Bradford, those immense towns of 
thick fog, wealth, manufitcturers, charming habitations, palaces, bad 
drainage, and r€»l black — ^not sea, but— river, which, for want of 
proper drainage, if not attended to, will always subject those placas 
to such epidemics. 

The working classes of the commercial districts of Yorkshire earn 
vexy good wages, though, at the same time, they work very hard; 
thdr ignorance in the science of oooUng is deplorable, and, without 
boasting, Eldse, I must say that I have been of some service to 
these same people, in improving the condition of their homes, as three 
parts of the wives of this hard-working class are utterly devoid of any 
knowledge of domestic economy. Cookery to them is almost un- 
known I but I must say they are willing to learn, and I hope this - 

* See end of the book. 



TABIOUB DISHBS IH THE XSON BAUOEPAV. 41 

work will be the meami of terminating that which I have lo gaoco8B« 
fully begun. 

Respecting my visiting prisons, hospitals, lunatic alliums, work- 
houses; also the interior of mines, conlpit^ &c. Ac.; and though I 
must admit that those localities do not show the brightest part of 
the mirror of life, still, you must not fancy that these people are all 
unhappy; «n the contrary, they are as contented as I am, and not a 
day passes but what I teach them something in my way, at the 
same time leamhig many little things from them, and I tiiink you 
will own that my correspondence pf^takes more of a jovial than a 
morose nature. 

Such is my opinion of that large class of society, termed. the 
million, after nearly twelve months stay among them, throughout 
the united queendom. 

IMPORTANT REMARKS ON COD-LIVER OIL. 

But now to a very important culinary, and I think medical discovery, 
which I owe to my persevering visits to various public charities in the 
towns through whidi I passed. This happened at Hull, about three 
months ago, from which town, if you recollect, I forwarded you the 
drawing of the Station Hotd, where I was staying — I call it the 
Monument Hotel, being so large and beautifuL But to come back to 
the question; one of the proprietors, Mr. Jordan, on my asking if I 
could visit the infirmary, kindly proposed to conduct me there, and 
introduce me to the governor, which was done to my entire satisfac- 
tion ; and I must say that the mck are not better attended to in any 
dmilar establishment I have visited in the country. 

Being aware of the immense quantity of cod-liver oil taken by 
delicate persons, now-a-days, and the great benefit derived from its 
use, I asked the medical officer present his opinion of its efficacy. 
"Nothing can be better," was ha reply, "in many cases. But," 
said he, " many patients cannot take it, being of sudi an unpleasant 
taste, more especially children, and as we in this establishment use 
the second quality, from motives of economy, it is doubly unpleasant." 
I myself tasted some, and must say that I found it anything but 
relishing. 

After bidding adieu to the doctor, I and my host left, and while 
returning to my hotel, I thought that something could be done to 
alter the present unpleasant way of administering it. Accordingly, 
upon reaching home, I sent for the following: — 

103. One pound of fresh cod-liver; I then peeled and steamed two 
pounds of nice floury potatoes, then cut the liver in four pieces, placed 
it over the potatoes, and then steamed them, letting the oil firam the 
liver ftll on the potatoes; I then made some incisions in the liver 
with a knif^ to extract the remaimng (»i» «!K«sirasdA ^^fi<EiKBi% "o:^ 



42 vAmovs mssBS m tkb mom nxvCKfAiu 

the liver, which was eaten with a little melted hatter and ftnehory 
saaoe. The potatoes were served up with a little salt and pepper. 
Both dishes were found extremely good. 

The following is another way of extracthig the oil of a oqpl'f Ihrer, 
with the aid oi that abundant article, rice. 

104. Biee and Cod Xn;e9».*-^Boil half a poiand of rice in two 
quarts of water. When nearly done, remove three parts d tJie 
water ; then put over your rice a pound of ood*8 liver, cut in 
large dice. Put the saucepan in a slow oveli Ibr about thirty 
minutes, by which time it wiU be nicely cooked. Then take the 
liver out, whicb serve as above directed. Stir the rice with a 
fork, and serve it ; if allowed by a medical man, add a little salt 
and pepper. If no oven, cook the liver and rice on a very slow 
£re, for otherwise it would bum, and be unwholesome as food. 

Of course you can easily see what a blessing such diet as this 
must be to a person incapable of taking the oil by itself, as, by 
mixing it with the food) it •ntur^Iy loses that rancid q^uality for 
which it is proverbial. 

105. Tapioca and Cod Liver. — ^Boil a quarter of a pocmd of 
tapioca till tender in two quarts of water ; drahi it in a cullender, 
then put it back in the pan ; season with a little salt and pepper» 
add half a pint of milk, put ovet one pound of fresh cod liver, 
cut in eight pieces. Set your pan near the fire to simmer 
slowly for half an hour^ oi; a little more, till your lirer is quite 
oooked. Press on it with a spoon, so as to get as much oil into 
the tapioca as possible. After taking away the liver, mix the 
tapioca. If too thick, add a little milk, then boil it a few 
minutes ; stir round, add a little salt and pepper, and serve. If 
you have a slow oven, use it in preference to the fire; but if you 
are without an oven, here is another good way of cooking it ; 

106. Put three inches depth of water in a largish pan ; then 
put the pan containing the tapioca in the above-mentioned pan ; 
let it simmer till quite done. It will take about an hour. By 
adopting this plan, all fear of burning is obviated ; afberwarda 
remove the liver, which serve as at No. 103. 

107. Sago, or semolina, may be done the same way, and by 
adding an egg, it will make a delicate pudding ; or by cuttingf 
the liver in small dice, you may add it to your pudding, putting 

IB a little more milk to inake it moist i then add ft couple more 



VABIOTTS DISSM IK THS IBON SAUCEPAN. 43 

eggs, well beaten, and mix ; putting it in a basin, preriotuily well 
battered; then let it simmer in a stewpan for half an hour, or 
till set ; then turn it out on a dish ; sauce with a little plain 
melted batter, anchovy, or parsley and butter. 

A little stringent food, such as the above, will be found v^ry 
refreshing, even to persons in good health. 

'108. Bice may be also turned to good account ; and I do not 
see why, after having taken the liver out, and adding four tea- 
spoonfuls of sugar, two eggs, one ounce of butter, and a little 
lemon peel, it would not ma^e a very good sweet pudding. Pour 
over it, when done, a little melted butter with a spoonful of 
sugar, some lemon juice, or wine ; or treacle, for children. 

109. Cod jRoe and Cod Xtv^.— Buy a cod's liver and roe, 
cut open the skin which surrounds it ; put the eggs in a basin, 
pour water over them, mashing them with your hand, to separate 
them, throwing away the water ; add half a pound of salt, and 
a teaspoonM of pepper; let them soak all night, afterwards 
washing them well in two or three waters, leaving about a gill 
at the bottom ; then put about two pounds of cod liver over it, 
cut in six or eight pieces, putting the stewpan either on a very 
slow fire, or in an oven, for one hour ; then take out the liver, 
which serve as usual. Add about a gill of melted butter in the 
xoe, when it will be ready. 

110. Or for any one in health four hard-boiled eggs, chopped, 
may be added, or three raw ones instead, and make a pudding 
of it ; pour it in, steam it in water till well set, then turn it out, 
and sauoe over with any fish sauce you like. The hard roe of 
any fish may be dressed like this, especially the roe of sturgeons. 

CABTHUSIAN OF MEAT AND VEGETABLES. 

Tou will perhaps be surprised at the name I have ^ven to this 
carious mixture (^ vegetable produce, but you will immediately per- 
ceive that I have taken it from those well known monks who took 
vows to partake of no animal food, something like our strict vege- 
tarians of the present day ; but those jolly old dogs in former days 
were obliged, at times, to break their vow ; as, however, it could not 
be done openly, they were obliged to mask the object cooked in a 
. covering of vegetables^ and thus cheated th^ oath and thslx cctroL 



44 VARIOUS DISHES IN THCS IRON SAUCEPAN, 

Carthusian, or Chartreuse, in French cookery, means any artide of 
food, such as meat, game, or poultry, so surrounded by vegetables, that 
even a v^^tarian would be deceived with its appearance, while mtting 
at dinner, and would not find out his mistake until helped with some 
of the dishes. 

111. 1*^ Lesson, — ^If in winter, cut crossways, in four, a 
large savoy cabbage, or two small ones ; take off a few of the 
outside green leaves ; wash the cabbage well, then put on the 
fire either an iron pot, or a three-legged black pot ; put in about 
three quarts of water; when boiling, add your cabbage, boil 
them for ten minutes, or a little longer, then drain them in a 
cullender or cloth, pressing out the water ; cut away the stalk 
from each piece, then chop your cabbage, though not too fine, 
letting it weigh about two pounds ; when thus prepared, which 
will be our proportion of vegetable to one pound of meat; 
previous to chopping them upon the board, season with one tea- 
spoonful of salt, that is, if salt meat be used ; two ditto if the 
meat be fresh ; one teaspoonful of pepper at aU times. 

Suppose we select for this, our first lesson, three middling- 
sized pigs' tongues. You have put them to boil with your 
cabbage, then cut them through lengthways, then place at the 
bottom of your pan about an inch deep of cabbage, and half an 
inch round the inside of the pan, placing your meat in the 
centre, thus making the meat invisible to the eye when turned 
out of the pot ; when filled, add a quarter of a pound of butter 
or dripping, two wineglasses of vinegar, if English, or one, if 
Prench, one gill of water ; set it on a brick, placed in the oven, 
for two hours ; then open your pan, and place over your cabbage 
a tea saucer ; press out all the gravy in a cup, pass a knife round 
your pot, then put a dish over the mouth inside downwards, 
turn the pot or basin upside down, wlien your carthusian wiU turn 
out like a pudding : pour the gravy or bread cromb sauce over, 
and serve. 

112. 2n(7 Lesson, — ^The above may be done in pudding- 
basins, or in deep oval pie-dishes, and either baked slowly as 
above, or steamed as puddings, but as there wiU be no cover to 
it, put over a cover of pudding-paste (see No. 319) ; fix over as for 
pies or puddings, making several small holes in the paste, and 
only putting half the moisture in. When done, remove the paste, 
wJucb put on the dish jrou intend to senre it in; press out the 



VAfilOUd DISHES t^ *mti mOir SAtJC£^AK. io 

gravy, turn your Carthusian out on the paste, already laid on the 
dish; then proceed with the gravy as above described; red 
cabbage is also very good, but requires double the quantity of 
vinegar, and more pepper; proceed the same; they require 
boiling in water about thirty minutes, if at all large, and rather 
old, as they are at Christmas. 

113. Srd and General Lesson. — Having given you the base 
or foundation in the above receipts on animal food, I will now 
in a few words describe the extraordinary variations that can be 
made with this favourite dish of the best judges of good cheer, 
—viz., the monastic fraternity of olden times. 

Instead of the above, you may use pig's feet, cheek, pickled 
pork, bacon, ham, liver of all kinds, previously fried, or partly so, 
sausages, black-pudding, or salt beef, previously boiled and cut 
in slices, or any part of fresh meat previously roasted, any 
remains of poultry or game may be done the same by cutting 
them in slic^ ; if, however, they have not been previously cooked, 
ihey will take two hours instead of one. Pigeons, partridges, and 
all kinds of small birds, may be put in rows, only they should 
be larded or stuffed previously. 

This will give you an idea of the various ways in which this 
dish can be made, as far as animal food goes. 

The following will, by omitting the meat, be applicable for 
vegetarians. 

VEGETABLE PUDDING. 

114. 4dh and General Lesson for the Use of the Vegetarian, 
—You must observe, Eloise, that the above receipts are all 
made with cabbage only. I have made them so, because, while 
travelling last winter, I found that every cottager grew cabbage, 
while no other vegetable was to be seen in his garden ; but now 
that summer is here, I will give you the receipts m the way the 
monks used to make them; and, mind, tliey were all good 
cooks in those days. They always had a foundation of cabbage 
or greens, or some kind of Brussels sprouts, one pound of 
either of the above done as in the first receipt; then they 
added a pound of either boiled carrots, turnips, parsnips, beet- 
roots, artichokes, potatoes, leeks, celery, or onions; boil the 
pound of whatever you chooae ftoia VJaa ^N^'C^KR»^'st\ ^fess^ 



46 BEiaBKS ON THB FOOD OF TBA F001£L 

it with your cabbage; seaaon, aad proceed as with cabbage only. 
Spue-grass, cut small, or peas, may also be boiled and mixed, 
but not chopped ; a little sugar is an improvement to vegetables, 
as it varies the flavour ; use any aromatic herbs and spice you 
choose, but always in proportion. 

You may also, for a change, pour either a little white or 
brown sauce over (see sauces), but observe that the vegetables 
must always be kept firm enough to turn out as a pudding ; 
either serve in a pan : or, to save trouble, turn the whole into 
a tureen, or in a large dish, that is, if for a large family, but the 
proper way is as first described. In fact, there is no end to the 
ingenuity which may be displayed in the variation of this dish ; 
and to the cottager, with his small plot of garden-ground, 
wherein he can produce sufficient vegetables for his iamily, it is 
one of great economy, besides being exceedingly conducive to 
health at all times. 



GENERAL IGNORANCE OP THE POOR IN COOKING. 

Ox cheeks may be bought at present, cat firom the bone^ and very 
ftesih, at about twopence-hal^enny to threepence per pound, in 
London. It is the most gelatinous food which the ox produces, and 
contains a large amount of nourishment, as I have already mentioned 
to you. The only drawback there is to it is the length of time it 
requires to cook, and the general way in which it is done, being in 
many cases prejudicial to its use. Frequently on my visits to the abodes 
of the poor, while in London last winter, I have often seen this article 
of food completely spoiled. On one occasion, X asked an old lady how 
she cooked it. " Sure enough," said she, ** by fire." " But, my dear 
woman," I inquired, "how long do you cook it?" "Ah!" she 
replied, " sometimes as long as an hour, and boiling Vike the very 
deuce all the time, till the water will not stand it any longer." 
" And pray," f asked, " what do you do with the water P" " Faith, 
there is no wat^ left, but otdy black mudc at the bottom of the pot, 
which I throw away," was her reply. 

Therefore I am always of the same opinion, dearest Ebise, as 
regards our long talked of scheme of opening a national school to 
teach the poor how to cook their food, and make the most of it. 
Some of the money spent on our new palace prisons would be much 
better employed for this porpose, and would ultimately decrease the 
parish rates. 

But I am digresi^g fi^om the conversation I had with this old 
dame. When 1 fyand she was so ignoEa&t, I asked her if I shoolcl 



•fizatABitfl dr ¥uiK food 6f thb poob. 47 

tmae and teach hor bow to cook, properly, an ox cheek. ** No, 
^ikith," said abe, ** I have no money to throw away, not even enough 
to bay another." Sanguine as I always am upon my fiivourite 
theme^ I offered to brmg one with me, as a present, the following 
day, and gave her sixx)ence to buy some sand to dean her iron pot, 
whidi I found done on my arrival the following day; she having 
also pnrchaied two pennyworth of coals out of the money. I then 
produced tiie ok cheek, and put it into the pot with four quarts of cold 
water, and four teaspoonfbls of salt, and some leaves of celery, which 
artides w«re given to her by a neighbouring greengrocer. Her fire 
was made up^ and the pot was placed on it, until boiling, and then 
removed to the side of it, and skimmed. There I left it, and went 
round to pay my other visits. 

At the end of three hours I returned, and, she having a large 
basin in the room, I put some crusts of bread in it, and poured 
the liquid from the pot into it, and the meat I placed on a dish, 
and aat down with the old dame, serving the soup out into cups 
mih a beer jug, having nothing better, and, to her great surprise, 
cut the cheek easily with a very bad knife, it being so tender. After 
tasting it, and finding it very good, she stud she would show 
her neighbours how to do it. I told her that, if she would do so, 
I would give her more like recdpts, when she exclaimed, " Bless 
yon, ma'am, do ; I will do them as well as you, now I have seen you 
do it." In anticipation of sending them to her the next day, I was 
about to retire, wishing her goodbye. "Lor*, ma'am," said she, 
" you would not go without taking a drog of the * crature.' " To my 
astonishiiient, a small bottle was brought out of her pocket, and oiTered 
to me. From its strange smell, I was induced to taste it, and I feci 
confident, if it had been analyzed by the " Lancet," it would have 
proved to be real Hue ruin, composed, as it was, of a mixture of 
vitriol, Ac 

This opened to me the iecret of the emaciated looks of the thou- 
sands of the inhabitants of these back alleys, and I could then account 
for the remainder of my diange out of the sixpence. I, however, 
aent her the fdlowing receipts, of course omitting her favourite 
seasoning — gin. 

Having sent her the receipts, as promised, on reconsideration, it 
occurred to me that the old lady might not be able to read. I was 
not mistaken, for on calling upon her, I found ux elderly matrons 
and an old man holding council together, and trying to make out 
the writing. The latter was just sending for his grandson, who, he 
said, was a scholar, having been three months at a Sunday-school. 
My arrival set all to rights, at the same time it frightened three of the 
conndl away ; but I begged the others to stop, and hear the receipts 
ready wluch they accor£ngly did» afterwards giving several copies 



48 fnfi GMDlEOi^ AKD pRitma-PA^. 

115. 1^^ Lesson. — Eub an ox cheek (middle size, or half a large 
one) with four teaspooniuls of salt and one of pepper ; put it into 
the iron pot, with' four quarts of cold water; set it on the fire to 
boil ; remove it then to the side, and simmer gently for three 
hours aft«r it begins to boil. Skim off the fat, which will do for 
puddings, and, at the expiration of the time, nearly three quarts 
of very strong gravy, in addition to the meat properly done and 
tender, will be found in the pot. A gill of colouring is an im- 
provement to the look of the broth. A head of celery, or some 
leaves of it, or onions, <&c., may be added in boiling. Put the 
head on a dish, and serve the soup separately, with bread in it. 

116. 2nd Lesson, — Or any small quantiiy of mixed vegetables 
may be used. They should sdl be cut into dice, and not peeled, but 
well cleaned, with the exception of the dried skin of the onion. 
One pound of rice, at the cost of twopence-hal^nny, when 
added, is a great improvement ; or half-a-pint of split peas, or 
barley, or a pint of white haricot beans, or a pint of Indian meal 
soaked the over-night, or a little fiour to make the gravy or 
broth thick. It may be varied in several ways ; but the chief 
point is, when once boiled, simmer slowly till tender, which you 
may ascertain by piercing it with a fork ; if it sticks to it, it is 
not sufficiently done. Sheep and lamb's head may be done the 
same way, but will only take one quarter ot the time ; season 
accordingly. 

This receipt is applicable to all kinds of hard meat. 

THE GRIDIRON AND FRYTNG-PAN. 
The Sesults oj their Mivahry in Domestic Coolcery, 

YoxTB favourite utensil, the frying-pan, Eloise, is, without doubt^ 
the most useful of all kitchen implements, and like a good-natured 
servant, is often imposed upon, and obliged to do all the work, while 
its companion, the gri^ron, is quietly reposing in the chimney 
corner. 

The following scene was witnessed by those two faithM servants^ 
the other afternoon, in a domestic establishment, where the sly dog 
of a gridiron often laughs between its bars at the overworked iiying- 
pen. 

The husband, who is employed by a railway contractor, and a man 

who is what the world calls middling well off, and who has risen by 

hiaown exertions and abilities xrom a more humble position, arrives 



HEAT OK ORIDIBOK. 49 

home, and aslcs his wife what ho can have for dinner, the honr of her 
dinner, and that of the children, having long past. ** What would 
yon like to have, my dear ?** was her question. ** Anything you 
have.** " Let's see ! why — we have nothing, but I can get you a 
mutton chop, or steak." ** Can I have nothing else ; I am tired of 
thops and steaks.'* " Why, my dear, what can be hotter than a 
chop or a steak ?'* " Well, let me have a steak." " You had that 
yestq^rday, my dear : now, let me get you a chop. I always make it 
my duty to study your comfort ; and as I have been reading, not 
long since, a medical work on diseases of the skin, written by Dr. 
Erasmus Wilson, in which he says that nothing is so wholesonib as 
a change of food, since which time I have made a point of varying 
our bill of fare, as they call it in that useful work." " Very well, 
sehd for two .chops." In about twenty minutes the servant returns, 
saying she could get no chops, but has got a nice piece of steak. 
**Vcry well. Tliat wiU do as well, will it not, my dear?" to 
her hosband, who is reading a periodical." " Yes ; but how long 
will you keep me here before it is done ?** " Not a minute, my 
love. Now, Jane, do that well on the gridiron." Jane descends, 
but quickly returns, saying, " Please, ma'am, the fire 'is not fit 
for brcMling." " Well, fry it," is her answer. The husband, who 
hears it, exclaims, " Drat the -frying-pan, it is always so greasy." 
** Then, my dear, how would you like to have it." " Not at all," 
VTBs his reply, throwing down the paper, and exclaiming, " Bother the 
place, there is no getting any victuals properly cooked here. I must 
go to the cook-shop and have it." He seizes his hat, and slamming 
the door, makes his exit in a passion. 

The mistress blames Jane, and begins to beat the child for having 
upset the milk on the toast. Jane kicks the cat, and gives warning. 
The night comes. There are no candles in the house. Jane is sent 
out for them, but does not return in proper time. Tlie husband 
arrives, and finds all in darkness. They qunrrcl, and swear they 
must separate in order to " live comfortably togetJier" Jane comes 
home, and is ordered to pack up her boxes, in order to be off the 
first thmg in the morning, by whidi time, however, their tempers 
have had time to cool, and Jane is acoor(^gly remstated in her 
fbnner pofdtion. 

Moral (not on fable, but on truth) : A man disappointed in some- 
thing to eat, consoles himself with something to drink. li he has 
no stimulus in wholesome food, he will have it in pernicious spirit. 
He is quarrelsome, scolds his wife, beats his children, frequents the 
dram-shop, and becomes what is called a bad husband. It is not 
altogether his fi:iult, the dinner was not eatable, and he must luwo 
tometlung to support liim, which he foolishly finds in spirits ; and thus, 
ly the want of attention on the part ol the wiie, is made what ho is. 
In no country in the world do the annals oi \>o\\c(i comx\a \^\t^\; ^\^«^ 

B 



so lOSAT OK OBIDIBOK. 

scenes as are daily noticed in the public journals of London, which 
the increase of punishment by a modem law has not yet succeeded in 
putting down. 

Before proceeding with the following receipt, it is adyisable to 
read the introduction of semi-fried steaks, and steaks in pan, page 55| 
as it would be tautology to repeat it here. 



IMPORTANT BEMARKS ON STEAK AND EUMP STEAK. 

Broiled Steaks and Mwmp Steak. — Previous to cooking a 
steak, nurse your fire ; it will well repay your trouble, and jdso 
remember, in the morning, that you are obliged to dine that 
very identical day, and no doubt you decide upon having a 
steak for dinner, which is a very good thing, when the meat is 
good and well cooked, also ^ the hour you intend to dine, and 
half an hour previous stir up the fire, clear away the ashes, 
stir all dead cinders from the bottom, and in a few minutes you 
will have a clear fire, fit for the use of the gridiron ; and every 
article you may submit to that process of cookery stands a 
chance of being well done. I herewith forward you the following 
lesson : — 

117. First Lesson. — ^For first quality of steak, the meat ought 
to be well hung, and if cut nicely off the rump of a Scotch beast 
will weigh from a pound and a quarter to a pound and a hal£ 
that is, being three-quarters of an inch thick ; if it should be 
cut rather thicker in one part than another, beat it even with a 
chopper ; if of the above thickness, it should be placed about 
five inches above the fire ; if thicker, six inches ; taking it as 
an invariable rule, that the thicker the steak, the further in 
proportion it must be from the fire. The extra piece of fat 
which accompanies it should be put on a little after the steak, 
or it will be too much done. Whilst doing, throw over some 
pepper and salt, and turn it the moment the fat begins to drop : 
the motive of constantly turning the steak is to keep the gravy 
in. Never put a fork into it to turn it, but use a pair of tongs ; 
but if you have not any, place the fork in the fat and turn it 
When the steak is done, it will feel firm under the pressure of 
tlie £nger. 



MEAT Oir GBIBIBOir. 51 

Second Lesson. — ^Sometimes it is impossible to broil over the 
fire, but easy to use a double gridiron, to broil in front. In sucb 
cases, the gridiron should never be opened until the steak is 
done; then the gravy will not be pressed out. If car^ully 
attended tOf this plan is as good as the other, but otherwise, it 
spoils the best of meat. 

The time required for a nice tender rump steak, three-quarters 
of an inch thick, weighing a pound and a quarter, over or before 
a nice dear fire, is from twelve to fifbeen minutes. If turned four 
times in that time, the gravy will remain in it, and if served imme- 
diately, on a hot dish (not too hot, to dry up the gravy), it will 
eat tender and juicy, and be fit for a member of the Bump Steak 
Club. 

Third Lesson. — Some persons put a bit of butter on the dish, 
others ketchup, others sauces of various kinds ; all these should 
be left to the party who partakes of it ; it is the duty of the 
cook to send it up plainly, but properly seasoned with salt and 
pepper, unless otherwise ordered. Every pound of steak will 
require one and a half teaspooniuls of salt, and a half of pepper. 

But if required flavoured arid seasoned to satisfy a hlasi 
appetite, then the following should be adopted. 

118. Mump Steak with Eschalot — Chop up one eschalot 
very fine^ mix it with a teaspoonful of salt and half of pepper, 
mb the steak all over with it, and press it in with a knife ; 
place it over the fire as the above, cook and serve. If not 
required so strong, rub only the gridiron and the dish with 
eschalot.* 

JRump Steak with Eschalot JButter.^^xit up two eschalots 
very fine, and mix it with half an ounce of butter, which spread 
over the under part pf the steak when dishing up. 

JSun^ Steak with Mditre d'JECStel Butter. — When yoiur 
steak is just done, rob it over with an ounce of prepared butter, 
as No. 425. 

J^evilled Steaik. — ^Mix in a plate two teaspoonMs of salt, half 



* K eschalot is required to be served up in the dish, or on a 
separate plate, chop them up fine, as at No. 458, and serve two tea- 
spoQDsM to every pound of steak. 

E 2 



52 HEAT ON OSIDIBON. 

of cayenne, two of made mustard; place the steak on the fire; 
after the first turn spread half of the mixture on it, and dredge 
it with flour ; do the same with the other side. Broil as ahove. 

Curry Powder , mixed with mustard, or curry paste alone, 
can he ruhbed over the same way. 

119. Wakefield Steak. — Cut a steak one inch thick, score it 
on each side, crossways. Piit into a taxt dish two teaspoonfuls 
of salt, one of pepper, one of sugar, a teaspoonful of chopped 
tarragon, a tablespoonful of Soyer's relish, two tablespoonfuls of 
vinegar; put the steak in it for six hours; turn it now and 
then. This seasoning is called marinade. Previous to broiling, 
dredge it lightly with some flour, while doing, and serve with 
butter in very small pieces under the steak. At Wakefield they 
sometimes use the Wamcliffe sauce. 

Some raw potatoes cut into very thin slices, and nicely fined, 
served round it, renders it a dish fit for the greatest epicure. This 
dish proves that the inhabitants of Wakefield have not lost the 
culinary reputation they fonnerly possessed, and which they first 
acquired some four hundred years since, when the French queen 
and her suite came to reside there, and allowed them to quarter 
the fiewr-de-lis in the arms of the town. Beef skirt and other 
pieces may be all done in the same way, allowing time to cook 
according to the quality and hardness of the pieces you dress. 

120. Mutton Chops. ^ — These may all be cooked and flavoured 
like the steaks, but in many cases garlic . is used instead of 
eschalot, when preferred. Peel a clove of garlick, put it on the 
end of a fork, and nib both sides of the chop lightly with it. 
Chopped mushrooms are veiy good with broiled chops. Any 
fleshy part of the sheep may be broiled the same way. 

121. Mutton Chop. — In my opinion, two chops out of a fine 
South Down, well hung, cut three quarters of an inch thick, 
leaving half an inch of fat round them, and broiled over a clear 
fire for ten minutes, turned four times, sprinkled with salt and 
pepper, served on a hot plate, one at a time, with a nice mealy 
potato, is as good, as wholesome, and nutritious a dinner as can 
be partaken of. One and a half teaspoonful of salt and a half 
of pepper to a pound of chops, is a good seasoning. 



* JPor description of chops sec page 55, Frying-Pan, 



UEAT ON GBITIBOK. 53 

122. Plain Veal Chops are broiled as above^ A veal chop, 
nicely cut irom the leg, oaght to weigh one pound. I am of 
opinion that to broil a veal chop by the direct action of the fire is 
an act of Vandalism. Of course, if there is no time to do it other 
ways, it must be done so ; but that so delicate a kind ot food 
should be subject to such fierce treatment in order to spoil it, is 
what I do not approve 'of. It ought to be wrapped up in a 
sheet of buttered paper, with pepper and salt on it. The sheet 
of paper ought to be large, thick foolscap ; the chop laid on one 
half, the other brought over, and the edges folded over so that no 
gravy escapes. They should be placed eight inches above the 
fire, and broiled for at least twenty minutes, and served in the 
paper very hot. A little chopped mushroom or parsley may bo 
placed in the paper, and improves the flavour. 

123. Veal Cutlet. — ^A pound of veal not more than half an 
inch thick, from the fillet, will make three cutlets, and should bo 
broiled with some bacon. The same objection exists with this as 
the former ; but both veal and bacon wrapped up in paper, and 
broiled as above, is very excellent; a little chopped chives, 
eschalots, or onions, may be added. 

124. Pork Chops, — ^These should be cut not quite so thick 
as mutton, and the skin lefb on. They will take one third 
longer to do. Well rubbed with pepper and salt, and an onion, 
previous to broiling, is an improvement. 

These can be served with any sauce, as apple, tomata, horse- 
radish, mustard, sage and onion, &c. &c. 

125. Calves* Heart should be cut lengthways, and the pieces 
not thicker than half an inch ; broil with a piece of fat, or bacon, 
for ten miimtes : serve with a little currant jelly and butter in tho 
dish, under the pieces of heart. 

It is also excellent (see Ko. 119) marinaded for a few hours, 
and the following may be done any way like steak. 

Ox, pig's, lamb, and sheep's heart, may be done like it. 

Also the livers of the above, cut the same thickness, and 
broQed with some bacon, a little melted butter with ketchup in 
it, is a good sauce for broiled heart and liver. Observe, Eloise, 
that I shall be obliged to send you many similar receipts to 
these for frying-pan, but the flavour will be very different. 

126. Lamb Chops should be cut not more than half an inch 
ihicky and broiled before the fire very close «ad. c^v^*, ^^^ ^^ 



54 HEAT OH GBmntoisr. 

take from mghi to ten minntes. Throw some pepper and salt 
over, and serve very hot, with fried parsley round them, if handy. 
Lamb chops might be dressed in paper, the same as veal. 

127. Broiled Ham. — ^A slice of ham a quarter of an inch 
thick will take seven or eight minutes, over a sharp fird^ turning 
it often. 

Bacon about the same. 

128. Sausages should be placed high above a slow fire, and 
done slowly : they will take ten minutes ; beef sausages, about 
eight minutes ; prick them first with a fork, or they will burst. 

129. Black Puddings. — ^The^e are often partaken of cold, after 
having been boiled, but they are best after broiling : they should 
be at least eight inches above the fire, and the skins pricked, and 
will take fifteen minutes doing, turning several times. 

130. Cold Meat BroHed.-^The remains of cold meat cut into 
slices a quarter of an inch thick ; season with salt and pepper ; 
when hot through, rub with a little butter, turn it often, and 
serve with a little ketchup in the dish. 

This may be varied with any saucei or diopped herbs. 

131. Broiled Bones. — When these have a little meat on them, 
they should be rubbed over with salt and pepper, and a little 
butter, broiled some distance above or before the fire, that they 
may get gradually warm, and should be served very hot, and 
rather brown. 

Eemains of poultry, game, &c., should be done the same. 

132. Devilled Bone. — The remains of the rib of a sirloin of 
beef, or the blade-bone of a shoulder of mutton, the legs of 
fowls, turkeys, &c., should be slightly cut all round with a 
knife, and well rubbed with cayenne and salt, and a teaspoonM 
of Chili vinegar, or ketchup, or Relish, and broiled gently 
until hot through and brown. Serve very hot. 

133. Broiled and Devilled Toast.-^Toast a round of bread, 
cut a quarter of an inch thick ; mix in a plate one ounce of 
butter, half a teaspoonM of cayenne, one teaspoonftd of mustardi 
one teaspoonful of Eelish, or Sauce ; spread it over the toast, 
and serve very hot. Broiled kidneys or sausages may be served 
on it. 

134 Broiled Kidmeys. — Sheep's kidneys should be cut in the 
middle, so aa nearly to divide them, leaving the fat in the middle | 



UBAT IN FBTIKG-PAK. B5 

nm a slcewer through them, that they may remain open ; broil 
gently; five minutes for a common size is sufficient. Season 
with salt and pepper ; rub a piece of butter over, and serve. They 
can be served on toast, or \7ith any sauce. 

Lamb's, pig's, calves', and ox kidneys, may be done the same 
way, but the two latter will take mudi longer, and should be 
better done. You may also egg and bread-crumb them. 

136. ^Broiled FowU^ Pigeons, ^c, — These, if whole, should 
be cut in down the back, after being drawn and well skewered 
to keep them so, or beaten flat with the chopper. Season 
well with pepper and salt ; well grease a double gridiron, and 
place them a sufficient distance from a moderate fire ; turn often. 
A fowl, if small, will take ieom twenty-five to thirty minutes ; 
if large, three quarters of an hour ; pigeons about ten minutes. 
Serve either plain, or with any sauce that is liked. They may 
be egged and bread crumbed. 



FRYING-PAN.— INTRODUCTION. 

This uleM utensil, which is so much in vogue in all parts of 
the world, and even for other purposes besides cookery — for I 
have before me now a letter, written, at the Ovens' cUggings, on 
the back of a frying-pan, for want of a table ; bat in your letter you 
suggest the necessity of paying particular attention to it, as it is 
the utensil most in vogue in a bachelor's residence. I cannot bat 
admire your constant devotion to the bachelors : you are always in 
fear that this unsodable dass of individuals should be uncomfortable. 
For my part, I do not pity them, and would not g^ve myself the 
slightest trouble to comfort them, espedally after they have passed 
the first thirty springs of their life. Let them get married, and 
ei\joy the troubles, pleasures, and comforts of matrimony, and have a 
wifo to manage their homei, and attend to more manly parsaits than 
cooking their supper when they get home at night, because the old 
housekeeper has gone to bed; or lighting the fire when they get up 
in the morning, because the old dame has a slight touch of lumbago; 
and should he require something substantial for his breakfast, and 
want that utennl of all work, the frying-pan, finds it all dirt and 
fishy, not having been deaned since he last dined at home. 

No, my dear Eloise, I assure you I do not feel at all inclined 
to add to thdr comforts, though you may do what you like with the 
Ibllowing receipts, which are equally as applicable tci t>hsGDi^«a\(^**^s^ 
humble abode of the married finterxuty • 



5G HEAT IN PRYING-PAS'. 

Ton will also find^ in these receipts, that the usual complaint of 
food being greasy by frying, is totally remedied, by sauteing the meat 
in a small quantity of fat, butter, or oil, which has att^ed a pi'oper 
degree of heat, instead of placing it in cold &t and letting it soak 
while melting. 

I will, in as few words as possible, having my frying-pan in one 
hand and a rough cloth in the other, with which to wipe it (con- 
sidering that cleanliness is the first lesson in cookery), initiate you 
in the art of producing an innumerable number of dishes, which can 
be made with it, quickly, economically, relishing, and wholesome. But 
I must first tell you, that the word fry, in the English language, is a 
mistake; according to the mode in which all objects are cooked 
which are called fried, it would answer to the French word sauiS, 
or the old English term frizzle; but to fry any object, it should be 
immersed in very hot fat, oil, or butter, as I have carefully detmled to 
you in our " Modem Housewife." To frizzle, saut^, or, as I will 
now designate it, semi-fry, is to place into the pan any olea^nous 
substance, so that, when melted, it shall cover the bottom of the pan 
by about two lines; and, when hot, the article to be cooked shall be 
placed therein. To do it to perfection requires a little attention, so 
that the pan shall never get too hot. It should be perfectly clean — 
a great deal depends on this. 

I prefer the pan, for many objects, over the gridiron; that is, if 
the pan is properly used.. As regards economy, it is preferable, securing 
all the fat and gravy, which is often lost when the gridiron is used. 

All the following receipts can be done with this simple hatterie de 
cuisine, equally as well in the cottage as in the pakce, or in the 
bachelor's chamber as in the rooms of the poor. 

136. 1*^ IJesson. To Semi-fry Steak, — Having procured a 
3t€ak about three quarters of an inch thick, and weighing about 
one pound, and two ounces of fat, place the pan on the fire, with 
one ounce of butter or iat ; let it remain until the fat is melted, 
and rather hot ; take hold of the steak at one end by a fork, and 
dip it in the pan, so that one side is covered with fat ; then 
turn the other side in it, and let it remain for two or three 
minutes, according to the heat of the fire ; then turn it : it wiH 
take about ten or twelve minutes, and require to be turned on 
each side three times, taking care that the pan is not too hot, or 
it will burn the gravy, and perhaps the meat, and thus lose all 
the nutriment ; in frwt, the pan should never be left, but care- 
fully watched ; on this depends the advantages of this style and 
mode of cookery. K the object is not turned often, it will be 
noticed that the gravy will come out on the upper surface of the 
meat, which, when turning over, will go into the pan and be 
Jost, instead of remaining in tliQ me%\>, ^oa&oni ^ItU a tea- 



MEAT IK FBTIKa-PAK. 67 

spoonM of salt and a quarter of pepper ; then feel with the finger 
that it is done, remove it with a fork, inserted in the fat, and 
serve very hot. 

So much for the first lesson, the details of which must ho 
learnt, as it will then simplify every other receipt. 

137. 2tnd Lesson, — Rememher that the thickness is never to 
exceed one inch, nor he less than half an inch, and to he as 
near as possihle the same thickness all over. A good housewife 
will ohject to one cut in any other way ; hut if it cannot he 
avoided, press it out with the hlade of the knife, to give it the 
proper thickness. When done, wipe the pan clean, and place 
it on a hook against the wall, with the inside of the pan nearest 
the wall, to prevent the dust getting in. 

Now, dear Eloise, yon will perhaps say that the foregoing lessons 
are too long for so simple a thmg as a steak, as everyhody think 
themselves capahle of cooking it without tuition, hut having now 
given these directions, I hope those who fancy they can cook without 
learning will know hotter for the future, and pay a little attention 
to so important a suhject. 

138. — The ahove lesson may he varied hy adding to the pan, 
with the seasoning, a few chopped onions, or eschalots, parsley, 
mushrooms,pickle8,semi-fned at the same time or after, fmd poured 
over the steak ; or when the steak is dished up, a little hutter, 
or chopped parsley and hutter, or two spoonfuls of either Relish, 
Harvey's, or any other good sauo^ that may he handj'. Pour 
the fat of the steak into a hasin for future use. Some Med 
potatoes may he served with it, or the following additions made: 
after the steak is done, slice a quarter of a pound of onions to 
each pound of steak, and a little more fat ; firy quickly, and when 
brown place round the steak ; pour the gravy over. 

Some mushrooms, if small, whole, if large, sliced, put in the 
pan and fried, are excellent. 

Two tablespoonfuls of mixed pickle, put into the pan after the 
steak is removed, Med a little, then add two tablespoonfuls of the 
liquor and two of water ; when on the point of boiling pour over 
the steak. The same may be done with pickled walnuts and 
gherkins, or two ounces of tavern-keepers* butter rubbed over, 
(see No. 427,) or half a pint of oyster sauce, or mussel sauce, or 
horseradish sauce ; or a Httle flour dredged over the steak, and a 
little water added in the pan, when the steak is done, and a little 
colonrixig or ketchup, and then poured ovec tib<^ %^^% 



58 MEAT m fllYraG-]^AK, 

These receipts can be continued and multiplied to any extent, 
entirely depending on the taste of the cook. 

A steak may first be dipped in flour, and well shook ; then, 
when you have semi-fried your meat, it will have acquired a 
nice brown ; this may also be applied to veal cutlets, pork and 
mutton chops, poultiy and game. 

139. Another Way. — ^When your steak is partly done, 
dredge both sides over with a spoonM of flour, dish up, pour 
out the fat, put a gill of water in the pan; let it simmer a few 
minutes, — it will make a nice thick sauce. 

139a. Beefsteak, toiih Semi-fried Po^a^oe*.— Rub and semi* 
fry your steak, adding thin slices of potatoes, letting them lie 
in the pan while the steak is doing ; turn them as often as you 
do the steak, serve round with gravy, to make which pour half 
a gill of water in the pan imder the steak — ^the moisture of the 
potatoes will cause some of the gravy to come out of the meat, 
but it will be foimd very good. 

140. A Series of Lessons how to Semi fry Chops of aU Jcinds, 
Lesson 1. — First select your mutton. Let it not be too fat ; if it is, 
cut some off. Always ol^rvethat a mutton chop should be one tbird 
fkt, and of the same thickness throughout. Have them cut from the 
loin, let them be about an inch in thickness. Very little attentiosi 
will accomplish this important point; for I feel convinced, Sloise, that 
an ill-cut chop never can be but ill-cooked ; you can always equalize 
them by beating them out with a chopper. Have your frying-pan very 
clean ; put in an ounce of butter, or, if you like, dripping or lard ; 
let it get rather hot. As soon as it begins to smoke, take your chop 
with a fork, by the small end, and dip it in the fat for half a minute; 
then turn it, let it semi-fry fbr about three minutes, season the upper- 
most side with a quarter of a teaspoonfril of salt, and half that quantity 
of pepper ; then turn it, and serve the other side the same way. Yoa 
may then turn it several times while doing, as that equaUies the 
cooking, as well as carbonizes the meat. Ten minutes will cook it te 
perfection, and less, if thinner. 

Second Lesson, — If the above directions are properly attended 
to, the chop will present the appearance of a rich brown colour, 
and the &t a gold colour, cutting extremely white and light, while 
the meat will look darkish, and give a strong gravy which will 
almost stick to the knife, instead d£ running on the plate and par- 
taking of a watery red colour, as is the case when a chop is slowly 
and badly cooked. This last sort of gravy is called by some people 
rich, which I am sure, my dear, you iwill find to be a great mistake; 



USAT IH TBtnro-PAir. 69 

tlioiigli the tiadly-cooked diop will probably weigh more than the 
other, from not having loet lo much of its subftance, yet it will not 
posMM half the nutriment and flavour of a chop well done. The 
above quantity of seasoning will do for a chop weighing about a 
quarter of a pound, and would, I may safely say, suit the palate of 
fifteen persons out of twenty ; therefore I hope it will dindnish the 
load of salt and pepper every Englishman piles on his plate, previous 
to tasting the article of food placed before him. The cook ought to 
season tor the guest, not the guest for the cook. 

141. Third Zenon, — When you can thoroughly cook a chop 
aooording to the first lesson, it materially simplifies the second, which 
is thus done : — Get a chop and cook it as above, but to vary the 
flavour, when half cooked, sprinkle over it a little chopped chives, or 
OKhalois, or onions, spice, or aromatic herbs ; or when done, rub both 
ndes of the chop lightly with a dove of peeled garlic, or a piece of 
fresh or maitre d'h6tel butter. These remarks are applicable to 
all kinds of semi-fried meat. 

Tike Fowrth Zetton is still more simplified, my dear Eloise, namely, 
oook your chop plainly, as before directed, eat it yourself, and let me 
know how you relished it. 

Chops from the neck, called cutlets, are done in this manner. Pork, 
veal, and ham chops require the same style of seasoning and cooking. 
A alow fire is preferable to a sharp one for the above mentioned chops, 
whieby when semi-fried, will take a gold cobur, as above-mentioned. 
Yoa maj always ascertain when the chop is done by pressing your 
finger on the thick part; if the flesh is firm and well set on both 
ttdss^ it is done and ready to serve. Half a pint of chopped pickled 
red oibbage put in the pan after the chop is done and warmed through 
will Ve found very relishing, especially for pork cutlets. 

142. Mutton Cutlets. — ^The chop from the neck is the best to 
semi-fry ; they should be nicely cut, and the bone at the thick 
part removed, as it prevents the meat from doing ; then beat up 
the yolk and white of an egg, with a pinch of salt; have 
ready some bread-crumbs, made from stale bread, and sifted, 
(this may always be kept ready in a canister) ; beat out the 
cutlets with a small chopper, dip them or rub them with a 
brush with the egg, place some of the bread-crumbs on a plate, 
and lay the cutlet on them ; press them ; serve both sides tho 
same, and shake off all loose crumbs; have the fat in tho 
pan quite hot, lay them in it; when nicely browned on one 
side, tnm them over, and do the other side the same ; take them 
out, lay them on a cbth, so that no fat remains ; serve with any 
made sauce. For bread-crumb, see No. 432 ▲• 



60 MEAT m FBTIKGhPAN. 

143. Veal Cutlets should be cut round, about tbree incbes iii 
diameter, and a quarter of an incb thick, done very quickly. 

144. These may all be rubbed previous to bread-crumbing, 
with either onion or eschalot ; by rubbing them there will be 
no perceptible taste, but a pungent flavour ; these can be served 
with various made sauces, and stewed spinach, greens, peas, and 
anything, according to taste, remembering that that which 
pleases the eye will prove agreeable to the palate. 

145. JPork Chops, semi-fried, without bread-crumbs, are done 
as the mutton chops ; they will require more time, and should be 
served with d mustard or sharp sauce. 

Mutton, veal, pork, and lamb, all look inviting, and are all 
equally good, when bread-crumbed and semi-fried, as above. 

146. 1*^ Lesson, Sausages and KidTieys, Semi-Jried, — Peel 
and chop fine about four small onions, put one ounceof butter in the 
frying-pan, two ounces of bacon cut in slices, and a tablespoonfol 
of chopped onions ; fry for five minutes, stirring it with a spoon ; 
cut half a pound of sausages in half lengthways, place them in 
the pan, then cut an ox kidney into thin slices, omitting, the 
hard part ; put it in the centre of the pan, season with half a 
teaspoonfril of salt and one saltspoonfrd of pepper ; fry gently 
for five minutes, turning them. Take care they are not done 
too much, or they will be hard ; throw a teaspoonfrd of flavour 
over them, add one quartern of water; simmer two minutes; 
dish with kidneys in the middle and sausages round. Dripping, 
lard, or oil, may be used instead of butter, and a few small 
mushrooms is an improvement. 

2^ Lesson, Kidm.eys aZone.-^lice thin an ox kidney, put 
two ounces of butter into a frying-pan; when hot, add two 
ounces of bacon, cut in thin dice, and the kidney ; fry for five 
minutes, if over a brisk fire ; longer, if over a slow fire ; add a 
teaspoonful of flour, salt, and pepper, moisten with half a pint of 
water, sinmier a few minutes, stir roimd, and serve with or 
without crisp toasted bread round it: a little lemon is an 
improvement. 

3r(f Lesson, Mutton Kidneys, with Ale Sauce, — Cut six 
kidneys in two, remove the outer skin, cut them into slices; put 
two ounces of butter into a frying-pan ; when very hot, put in 
theMdnejs, and stir continually for about five minutes; sprinkle 



UBAT DT FBTmO-PAir. 61 

over a ieaflpoonful of flour, a little salt and popper, and, if 
liandj, a little parsley chopped fine ; moisten with a little water 
and four tablespoonfuls of ale ; thus it forms a thickish sauce. 
Lemon is an improvement, or wine in the place of ale, or 
a little vinegar, if preferred. 

• 

1471 Calves* Livery Semufried. — Cut the liver a quarter of 
an inch, thick, the bacon the same, mix in a plate a tahlespoonM 
of flour, one teaspoonful of salt, and the same of pepper, dip the 
liver into it; have ready the fir^ing-pan, with sufficient fat or 
dripping, quite clear, as much as will cover the bottom of the 
pan a quarter of an inch ; when very hot (which try as before 
directed for flsh), put in the liver and bacon ; the bacon will be 
done first, which remove; the liver must be turned in five minutes; 
when it is done remove it into a dish, and serve. 

148. Another Way, — ^Take away nearly all the fat, then put in 
the pan a teaspoonful of chopped onions, the same of flour, stir till 
brown, then add some salt and pepper, a tablespoonful of vinegar, 
and a small teacupful of water, a little curry powder, if handy; mix 
well together, and pour over the liver. Calves' Hearts^ as well 
as pig's and sheep's, t&c. &c., may be done like liver, cut iu 
slices, with the exception, that either some currant-jelly, port 
wine, or a little ale or porter, or ketchup, may be added to 
the sauce ; it is also good bread-crumbed. 

149. Lamhs* Fry is sometimes to be had for a trifle ; you 
can purchase it from about threepence or fourpence per pound ; 
wash it in cold water ; for every pound put a quart of water ; put 
them in it for ten minutes to set ; take them out, lay them on a 
cloth ; then put in a frying-pan two ounces of butter or dripping, 
letting it get hot, then dip each piece of the fry in the follow- 
ing mixture, and put in the pan, and firjr gently : break an egg, 
beat it well, add a teaspoonful of flour, which mix smooth, half 
a wineglass of either milk or water, a little salt and pepper may 
be put in this delicate batter. When your fry has obtained a 
nice gold colour, turn it ; when done, season with a teaspoonful 
of salt, and a quarter of pepper, to every pound of fry. A few 
chopped onions put in the pan with the meat is very nice, or a 
few mushrooms. 

IMgs* chitlings, done as above, will be found very good, espe- 
cially if fried with onions ; buy them ready cleaned, tlviw V^^^\^ 



62 MEAT IN F&TnrG-PAK, 

you &y them let them simmer in a saucepan, in salt and water 
for thirty minutes, or till tender ; drain them, and &j as above. 
Tripe may also be done the same. 

FOWLS. 

150. — Thx motive of senu-&ying food is to have it done quickly; 
therefore, to fry a whole fowl, or even half, is useless, as it could be 
cooked in a different way in the same time; but to semi-fiy a fowl 
with the object of having it quickly placed on the table, in order to 
satisfy a good, and perhaps fastidious, appetite, it should be done in a 
similar way to that practised in Egypt some 8000 years nnce^ and 
of late years for the great Napoleon — that is, cooked in oiL 

In France this dish is called '* Poulet a la Marengo." It is related 
that the great conqueror, after having gfdned that celebrated victory, 
eat three small chickens at one meal done in this way, and ^ 
appetite and taste was so good, and he approved of them so highly, 
that he deared that they might always be served in the same way 
during the campaign. 

151. — The fowl should be divided thus ; if just killed it should 
be plucked and drawn as quick as possible, or cooked whilst still 
warm ; it will then be tender ; if it has been long killed, the 
joints and pieces should be well beaten with a piece of wood, not 
to break the skin and bones, but to loosen the sinews. The legs 
should be first removed, then the wings, going close up to the 
breast ; then cut the belly in two ; by this there are eight pieces. 
They should be seasoned with pepper and salt ; for want of oil, 
one ounce of either butter, fat, or dripping should be put in the 
pan. K a young fowl, it will take from twelve to fifteen minutes ; 
the pieces should be turned several times ; when done serve plain, 
or put into the fat a glass of wine, some vinegar, or ketchup ; 
for want of wine add a little vinegar ; give it a boil up till half 
reduced ; season and pour into the dish, and serve. A few fried 
mushrooms are excellent with it; or six oysters, with their 
liquor, or temata sauce, &c. 

If the fowl is prefijrred to be done whole, then split it down the 
back, truss it the same as for broiling ; beat it flat, put two ounces 
of oil into the pan, lay in the fowl, season it ; it must be done 
gently, and will take half an hour, if young, but of a good size; 
if rather an old bird, it will take one third more than the above 
time. 

152. JPi^eons, whole, should be cut dowo the back the same tf 



MHAT IN PRTING-PAK. 63 

fowl ; cut off the head, the pinions, and feet ; season and fry with 
an ounce of oil or £&t. They will take ten minutes. 

163. JRahbits. — Cut them in pieces, remove all superfluous 
bones, beat each piece flat, season them with pepper and salt, 
place the pan on the fire with two ounces of fat, put in it two 
onionA, sliced, and then the rabbit ; they will take twenty minutes 
or more to do, gently ; remove the pieces of rabbit ; have the 
liver, heart, and brains chopped up with a little parsley, and fry 
with the remaining fat ; when done pour off part of the fat ; add 
a gill of water, season it ; give it a boil, and pour over the rabbit. 
A little curry may be added, and boiled rice, served separate. 

154. Poultry of all kinds, Devilled. — These are best made 
by poultry previously cooked. The proper way is to do them 
with the gridiron, but in case the fire is in that state that they 
cannot be broiled, and the everlasting frying-pan must be made 
use of, then prepare them as already described for broiling. 
Place in the pan one ounce only of butter, and fry gently until 
hot through. A slight improvement may bo made in using the 
frying-pan ; it is to rub the bottom with garlic or eschalot before 
pladng the fat in, frying some onions at the same time. A 
little bacon can also be fried with it. 



CURIOUS EFFECTS OP IMAGINATION 

Here, Eldse, I again discuss a subject about which, some little 
time since, we had an argument; but you will observe that the topic 
is treated in quite a difierent manner, and you must use your own 
discretion whether you will introduce ox liver or' not. I can only say 
that I and three friends dined off it yesterday, and they all declared 
it excellent. I assure you I am not jesting, they thought thoy were 
eating calves' liver, and praised the way it was cooked. 

Later in the day I put on a very long face, and asked one of them, 
a counn of mine, if he felt well, as the cook had made a great mistake 
in prepaiing the cUnner ? Ho, knowing my mania for experiments, 
tamed very pale, and said, "No! No!" "Do not bo frightened, 
ibr it is nothing very bad ; she used ox liver instead of calves'." The 
poor fellow was greatly relieved, for he thought himself poisoned; but 
still the idea of having eaten of the food which is generally given to 
that domesticated and homely animal, pussy, made him uncomfort- 
able all through the evening. 

TUs is the effect of the imagination, as we b&N^ woS&m^^ "^cs^R&ii^ 



64 MEAT IN FRYINO-PAJT. 

in China, France, and elsewhere, that many objects which we detest 
are considered the greatest luxuries. 

A curious incident of the force of imagination occurred some years 
since at a town not a hundred miles from Leicester. A candidate 
for the borough, as M.P., a noble lord, having been unsuccessfol, his 
supporters proposed ^ving him a dinner to console him for his loss ; 
he, however, could not attend; but sent them a raised pie of game, 
about the size of a small carriage wheel, which was partaken of by his 
supporters with great gusto. A few days after a letter arrived to 
the chairman, as if firom the noble lord, stating that he was glad they 
liked the pie, as he had now got his revenge for their having deceived 
him in the election — that the pie was composed of polecats, dogs, 
rats, &c. &c. This letter was shown to the members of the committ^ ; 
and it soon got noised about, and although four days had elapsed, 
there was hardly a person that had partaken of it who was not ill. 
The noble lord having left that part of the country, it was some days 
before the hoax was found out. 

155. 1*^ Lesson. Neto Style of Dressing Liver in Frying- 
pan. — I dressed it thus : take about two pounds of ox liver ; 
remove the sinew and veins, cut it into long slices, half an inch 
thick, put in two ounces of dripping in pan ; when hot put in 
three pieces at a time of liver until set ; cut a quarter of a pound 
of bacon in small dice, fry in fat, cut up the liver in small 
dice, add it to the bacon, then add a tablespoonful of chopped 
onions, the same of pai'sley, the ^ame of flour, a teaspoonful of salt 
and half of pepper, stir round, and then add half a pint of water, 
or a little more if the flour is strong, till it forms a nice thickish 
sauce ; put all into a dish, cover over with bread-crumbs, put a 
little fat over, and place in the oven or before the fire for twenty 
minutes ; brown it over with a hot shovel, and serve. A few 
poached eggs put on the top will give it a nice appearance, and 
render it more nourishing. Curry may be used. 

156. Minced Meat. — The remains of any kind of cooked meat 
will be found very good ; the meat having been previously done 
will only require mincing. Cut in thin slices about one pound 
of meat, put on a dish, sprinkle over about a teaspoonful of salt, 
third ditto of pepper, one of flour, mix well, put in your frying- 
pan, add half a pint of water, and a drop of colouring, if handy, 
put on the fire, stir when it commences to boil, £hen place it 
on the hob, let it simmer ten minutes, and serve. 

J^.B. — This is very plain, as you see, and can be made in any 



MEAT IN PRYIKO-PAir. 6S 

pan oar iron pot, bat I place it here only for those who possess a 
frying-pan. 

You may now vary this economical dish in twenty different 
ways ; prepare always your meat, flour, salt, and pepper, as 
above ; you may add a teaspoonful of chopped herbs, such as 
onion, chives, or parsley, or a tablespoonful of sharp pickles, or 
made sauce, a little cayenne, spices, wine, or vinegar, may also be 
used, and served on toast if approved of* 

157. Minced Veal, — Any remains of roast veal may be 
qoiokly dressed to good advantage, as follows, by the aid of the 
frying-pan : — Cut all the meat and fat off the joint into small 
dice ; calcolate the amount of fat you put with the lean, say three 
ounces for every pound ; when cut put a pound of it on a dish, 
add to it a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper, two spoonfuls 
of flour, and a chopped onion; put in the pan half a pint 
of water to boil, two teaspooufuls of colouring j then put the 
meat in, stir it, let it simmer gently for twenty minutes, and 
serve on toast ; poached eggs on it are very good ; or put the 
mince into a tin pan, bread-crumb over, drop a little butter or 
dripping over, then put it in the oven, or before the fire to 
brown. The mince may be made white by using milk instead 
of water and colouring. 

168. New Waif of Minotnff Jfcai^.— Cut in small dice ono 
pQond of either raw beef, mutton, pork, or veal, flesh and fat in 
proportion ; put in the pan two ounces of butter or dripping ; 
when hot, add the meat, stir it occasionally, and season it with 
two small teafipoonMs of salt, a little spice, half one of pepper. 
When the meat is just set, put in a teaspoonful of flour, half a 
pint of water; let it simmer twenty minutes, or, if tough, a 
Httle longer, adding a gill more water, and serve; a little 
esohaloti chives, or onions, chopped, may be added. If veal, lamb, 
or pork, the sauce may be kept white, and milk may be used ; if 
beef or mutton, the sauce ought to be brown, and three teaspoon- 
fols of colouring added ; the juice of a lemon, or a drop of 
vin^ar, is very good with it ; ox kidneys may be done the 
same way. This will make a good curry by the addition of 
half a tei^poonful of that article. 

158 a. Simjplified way of Hashing all kinds qf CooTced 
Iffa^.-^ut a pound of meat, except salted meat> previously 



68 IfBAT IK FBYIKa-PAK. 

cooked, into thin slices, put it on a dish, add to it one teaq^ooia'* 
ful of flour, one and a half of salt, half a one of pepper, mixing all 
together well, then put all in the firying-pan, adding half a. pint 
of cold water ; set it on the fire ; let it remain there imtil it han 
aimmered ten minutes; take up, and serve. 

2nd Lesson. Proceed as above, but vary fiavoor with eithex 
of the following ingredients : use either a teaspoonM of chopped 
onions, eschalot, parsley, a few mushrooms, pickles, sauce, or 
ketchup. 

The above can be d(me in either black pot* inm saoioepiNi, of 
frying-pan. 

159. AU the above can be made as curries, aad Berved vith 
rice, by first frying one onion, c^t up small, and balf a large 
baking-apple, also cut small ; then add the meat, give it a ^Jb 
mix with half a pint of water, one teaspoonM of good curry 
powder, pour it over the meat, give it a simmer lor t^ 
minutes, and serve with boiled rice separate. 

160. Bubble and Squeak. — ^Any remains of salt beef or pork 
may be dressed in this old, but good and economical fashion. 
Cut your meat, when cold, in thin slices, to the weight of about 
a pound, including, if possible, from two to three ounces of fat ; 
then take one or two Savoy cabbages, according to size, which, 
when boiled and chopped, ought to weigh about two pounds ; oat 
each cabbage in four, throw a few of the green outside leaves away, 
as likewise the stalk ; put about a gallon of water in an iron 8aaoe« 
pan ; when boiling add your cabbage, and let it remain about 
twenty minutes, or until tender ; drain them well, and chop them 
up rather fine ; then add three ounces of either butter or dripping 
in the frying-pan, which put on the fire ; when hot put in your 
slices of meat, which semi-fry of a nice brownisb oolour, on 
both sides; take them out, put them on a dish, keep them 
warm ; then put the cabbage in the pan with the fat, add a tea- 
spoonful of salt, the same quantity of pepper ; stir round till hot 
throughout; put on the dish, lay the meat over, and serve; if no 
cabbage, any green will do, first boiled, drained, chopped, and 
fried. Boiled carrots and turnips, previously cooked and chopped* 
may be added to the cabbage. 

161. Fritters of Meat, Poultry , Fish^ andfHits.r-The&H/^ 



wmjlt dt niYnro-PAir. 67 

lowmg is iSiirty raceipU in one :-— Put a ponnd of the onunb of 
bread to soak in cold water, take the same quantity of any kind 
of boiled or roasted meat, a little fat, which chop in dice 
rather fine, press the water out of the bread ; put in the pan 
two ounces of butter, lard, or dripping, with two tcaspoonfuls of 
chopped onions, fiy two minutes, add the bread, stir with s^ 
wooden spoon untU rather dry, then add the meat, season with 
a teaspoonfbl of salt, half of pepper, a little grated nutmeg, if 
handy ; stir till quite hot ; then add two eggs, one at a time, mix 
very quic^, and pour on dish to cool. 

Then roll it into the shape of small eggs, then in floury 
egg them and bread-crumb, fry (as No. 72) a nice yellow colour^ 
serve plaipi of with any sbarp or any other sauce jov^ fancy. 

• J.62. I^numerable are the receipts that can be made in this 
way ; in fact, from everything that is eatable, and at any season of 
the year,— from the remains of meat, poultry, game, fish, 
v^etables, using the same amount of seasoning. Bread soaked 
in milk is better. 

163. The same can be done with chopped dried fruits, and 
preserved fruits, using a quarter of a pound more bread i fry, and 
sift powdered sugar and cinnamon over. Cream may be used 
for Amits or eurds, 

TJiey may siso be :&ied iii better, like fritters, instead of bread- 
emmbs. 

There is no end to what may be done with these receipts. 
Tkej VOiSf be £ded, and when cold put between paste, cut into 
nice paeees of any shape, and baked. They can be ornamented, 
sod nisde nat^j the table of the greatest epicure, if the bread 
be soaked in eieam, and spirits or liquor introduced in them. 

].64* Jiip^i J^9n9faiii<m,^-^BQil two pounds of tripe ; when 
done, draii^ it, d^ with a doth} cut it in pieces about an inch 
square, put in the pan four oimces of butter, four middling-sized 
enioiis eat in sliees, fry fbr a fbw minutes, then add the tripe, stir 
them every fi)ur minutes fbr about a quarter of an hour, then put 
in a teaspoonful of salt, half ditto of pepper, two tablespoonfrda 
of vinegar, mixed well, and it wiU be ready for serving. 

YermieeUi, boiled in the water that the tripe has been 
boiled in, makes good soap. Bice or bread is nice done this 
way. The addition of a teaspoonfrd of curry, one spoonfril of 

y2 



( 



68 HEAT Ur rRYXNGhPAV. 

flour, and half a pint of broth or water, will make a good 
eurry with the tripe. 

165. A Fried Toad in the Mole, — ^Take a steak of the size 
Inquired, not less in thickness than what I have before stated, 
and partly fry on both sides ; have ready a pint of second-class 
batter, as No. 470; remove the steak for a minute, add more fat 
in the pan, put in the batter when it is beginning to become as 
thick as paste, place the steak in the middle, raise the frying-pan 
a sufficient height from the fire on a trivet, so as to cook gently; 
tarn it over ; or put the pan in the oven; when well set it is 
done; serve on a dish, the bottom uppermost. 

165 A. 2W^e Swutdd, — Have the tripe already boiled tender ; 
put into the pan two ounces of fat, with two onions in slices ; 
fry them ; when brown add the tripe, which must be dry ; when 
they get a little brown add salt, pepper, a pint of second-class 
batter. No. 470 ; proceed as above. 

The same Curried, — ^Proceed as above ; add one teaspoonfrd 
of the cuny powder instead of the vinegar. 

The same with JPichle.^^'ProcGed. as above; adding piocalilly^ 
or gherkins cut smalL 

166. I%e Itemaina qf other Jsinds of Cold Boast Meats 
may be done in this way, and, when eggs are cheap, poach half- 
a-dozen, which put on the top. 

167. The ^Remains of Fish, previously cooked, are very good 
done in this way. A piece of conger eel or ling, about four inches 
thick, partly boiled in salt water with onions and parsley, and 
boned, will make a veiy economical and also a Lenten dish. 

168. Veal or Mutton, cut into pieceSi about two inches 
square, and thin, may be fried and added to the batter. 

169. JBerfCollops, Fried, — ^Take apiece of steak, part and cut 
thin into pieces of about two inches square, let it be free from 
sinews, have the frying-pan well greased, add the pieces of meat, 
do them quickly, sprinkle salt, pepper, and a little flour over 
them whilst doing ; and when nearly done add any flavour you 
like, either of cunyi pickles, tomato, or a little yinegar. Serve 
Tezyhoi 



80TEB*S BASING STEWINO-PAir. 69 

170. Veal Cutlets for the Aged. — Cut one pound of veal in 
eight or ten pieces ; season with a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of 
pepper, little chopped parsley; then take each piece separate, 
and with the back of the knife beat them well till nearly in 
a pulp ; give them the shape of cutlets with a knife ; e^^ and 
bread-crumb; beat them nice and smooth, put two ounces of 
lard in. the frying-pan ; when rather hot, &y a nice colour ; serve 
plain, or with sharp sauce, Ko. 411. These may be done, as a 
general dish, by adding a little Med bacon and chopped oniond 
in the frying-pan. They are extremely tender and fuU ot gravy 

Beef, mutton, and lamb, may be done the same way. Sausage- 
meat of beef or pork may be here introduced, shaped and fried 
the same. 



INTRODUCTION TO BAKING STEW-PAN. 

Mr DEAB Eloise, — In some of my former letters, I have stated that 
the principal art of cookery consists in knowing the exact time each 
objecfc requires to be subjected to the action of the fire ; whether it 
be direct, or by the asnstance of either roasting, frying, baking, or 
boiling. Large quantities of food may be treated in such a manner, 
that no more nutriment shall be obtained than by smaller quantities ; 
but to lear& this requires practice and attention, more than those to 
whom we wish to dedicate these letters can probably give. 

I have been thinking in what way we could obviate the present 
loss, which either ascends the chimney to disperse in thin air, or 
pervades the apartments of the house to the inconvenience of its 
inmates. 

I am the more particularly led to the consideration of this subject 
from having, in my rambles, entered a cottage, the other day, from 
which an odour proceeded, as if something more than ordinary cookery 
was gcnng on, when I found a large pot of a kind of Irish stew boiling 
away on the fire, and the fragrance of the vegetables and meat dis- 
persed over the apartment. Entering into conversation with the 
occupant, whom I found to be the wife of a carpenter on the adjoining 
estate, and who was preparing the table fbr six persons to dine, I 
soon found she had no mean opinion of ber abilities in cooking. I 
remonstrated with her on the waste she was making, and at once 
took up a plate, and held it over the pot, so as to intercept the 
steam, when it was shortly covered by condensed steam and small 
particles ot fibrine, which I convinced her would be much better 
used in giving nutriment to her family than in mingling with the 
soot in the chimney* 



f 0OTEB*8 BASIKa StEWllTGHPAlf^ 

In oat snpericnr kitchens there may be plenty of meanf and niensils 
to prevent a part of this evil ; but in the cottage, the abode of the 
labourer, whose stock of kitchen utensils consists of an iron pot, 
frying-pan, and gridiron, these kind of stews could not be done With- 
out great waste and difficulty. I have therefore invented a new and 
simple baking stew-pan, by which all the nutriment and flavour of 
the various ingredients placed in it are preserved. In order that 
you may understand 11^ I will give you a drawing and desoription 
of it, feeling confident it will be useM to the milli(m. (See appendix 
at the end of book.) 

It has, likewise, one great advantage over the old method of 
boiling or stewing, namely, that it gives hardly any trouble in 
making, retains all the nutriment, cooks in one-third less the time 
taken by the usual way, and there is not a part of any beast, such as 
mutton, lamb, beef, pork, veal, or fish, however tough, that may not 
be cooked tender by this pan. Let whatever you cook in it be sweet, 
you may, by using this pan and the following receipts, make delicious 
dishes of fish, flesh, or vegetables j moreover, food prepared in this 
way will keep much longer than if dressed another way, and must 
consequently fieunlitate the way of cooking for a large family, as you 
can do enough food at once to last for several meals^ which you must 
admit will save an immense deal of time. 

This modest pan, as you must percdve, will Concentrate aU the 
nutriment and aroma created by any kind of food ]daoed in it ; and 
the object I have in putting a lock and key on it, is to prevent any 
person raising the lid while cooking, as by so doing the ISest part of 
the flavour would immediately escape. 

It is so constructed that it may be hung over the fire, or placed on 
ihe hob, or steamed or bmled in a stewpan (as you would a pudding 
U^ed in a basin), or in a cottage or baker's oven. 

You must agree, my excellent friend, that I have hitherto done all 
n my power to simplify and economize the food partaken of by the 
larger part of the people of this country, who, I am scnry to say, are 
much behind their continental neighbours in the art of cookery, 
though possessing the be^t kind of food, and certain I am that huge 
mountains might be erected with the food daily and hourly wasted, 
even at the dxjon of the poor.* 

Is it possible, that in a country where the science of political 
economy has made such progress, that such m^i as Jeremy Bentham 
and others have written volumes to benefit their feUow me% and yet 



* While on my Governmental mission through Ireland, in the year 
of the famine, 1817, the following conversation took place between 
Lord Bessborougl), then Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, and myself, after 
my return from visiting the interior of the country ; — 



80TEB*8 BAKIKG STEWINO-PAIT. 71 

nlnrer lunw giren one word on that science which would materially 
iicreaie the food partaken (^ hy all dasset of society ! 
- Kow that I have explained to you my new method of cookery, you 
most tiy the following receiptee and then you will find my assertion 
to be oorrecL 

171. Berf'Steah in Baking Pa/n. First Lesson, — Take two 
poonds of beef steak, which cut in pieces the size of walnuts, but 
only half an inch thick ; peel two pounds of potatoes, cut in slices 
a quarter of an inch thick, two middling-sized onions sliced ; mix 
two teaspoonfuU of salt and cme of pepper. 

Then lay five or six slices of potatoes on the bottom of the pan, 
season them, then add some pieces of beef; season again, then 
potatoes and onions, then beef, until the pan is full, potatoes on 



** In an hit er vie w granted by lus excellency, his lordship asked me 
if 1 ooold aoooant for the generality of the people b^g so poor; 
when I replied, 'Easily, my lord: why they actually manure the 
land with gold to reap copper/ 'How do you make that out?' 
was his excellency's inquiry. * Why, my lord, they waste tons of 
good fish on the ground to grow a few potatoes.' ' In your opinion, 
why do they do it P* ' Why, my lord ? Because they know how to 
cook potatoes to perfection, and are totally ignorant of the way to 
cook fish.' ' Wdl, I believe you are right,' s^d his lordship; 'but 
how could the evil be reme(hed ?* ' Easily,' I replied. ' I would 
first show them how to cook their food, no matter how simple such 
fiwd might be, and prove to them that the maize, or American 
Hour, now so much in use, if properly prepared, would be a blessing 
instead of a curse; also the necessity of using with their food 
ether vegetables bendes potatoes, as well as instruct them in several 
plain ways of cooldng fish, which could be had in abundance all the 
year round, at a very cheap rate ; it would, at the same time, give 
emi^oynient on the coast to thousands of indolent people, as well as 
cirralate an immehse deal of money in the interior of the country, 
and much improve the condition of these poor wretched beings who 
only seem to have been bom to live between poverty and starvation. 

•• My plan would be to have pubUc lecturers appointed, whose duty 
it should be to go round as ofcen as the agricultural lecturer, and 
teach the people how to cook the food whidi that person now en- 
deavours to make them cultivate. 

"Until this is done, this country wiU never emerge out of the 
Mmi-barbarous state in which it is at present." 

Hii lordship took a note of the conversation, but sudden illneM 
prevented my ideas being carried out. 



72 soyeb's bakikg stewzng-pak. 

the top, seasoning each time ; pour three quarters of a pint of water- 
^ock the lid, put in your oven, or send to the baker's, for one 
hour and a half; when done shake the pot gently, that the gravy 
may mix with the potatoes and onions, and form a nice thick 
sauce. Skirt or any other part of beef is excellent done thus. 

Observe, Eloise^ that this is the plain foundation of every receipt 
which I am going to send you, on that simple and effective style of 
cookery. I have omitted all seasoning but salt and pepper ; if onions 
are an objection omit them ; therefore take this as a g^de for all 
kinds of meat, poultry, and even fish^ which are very good done in 
this way. 

172. Another variety may be made, which gives a change; 
this is, to mix a quarter of a pound of flour with a little chopped 
suet, a little salt, a gill of water, to form a paste ; roll it out to 
cover the meat, so that it fits to the sides of the pan; then put 
the cover on as usual, and bake. A little dripping will do for 
the paste. 

You have often reproached me of liking to give varieties of season- 
ing; in the above it is according to your own heart; but having done 
so, let me give one according to my own liking, and though you say 
the majority of people are not fond of savoury cookery, and do not 
like any predominant flavour ; but I am certain they only require to 
try it two or three times, and they will like it. 

173. — The variation of seasoning is very slight, to the above 
add only two onions ; four will give it a stronger flavour, and 
six for those fond of onions. These may be varied by the 
judicious use of the following spices — either two cloves, or one 
blade of mace, or six peppercorns, or a teaspoonful of powdered 
ginger. Or with the herbs, two small bay-leaves, two sprigs of 
fresh thyme, or some wmter savory, or lemon thyme ; if dried, 
a little more should be used ; two teaspoonfuls of* chopped 
parsley may be employed. A little celery seed is also very 
good. All these are to be increased in proportion to the size and 
contents of the pan, 

174 Leg of Beef. — Take two pounds of the leg — that part 
which is full of sinew — cut as above, and season the same way ; 
add a pint of water, and give another hour in the oven : meat 
without bone is preferable ; any part of the beef will do for this 
receipt. 



SOTEb's baking STSWINChPAir. 73 

Or 9 instead of catting the leg or any other part of the beasty 
the oheek may be put in whole, letting it weigh about four 
ponnds. This process of cooking will make it very palatable 
and tender; to vary it, the meat may be larded, and a bunch of 
herbs (No. 460) added, also cloves, nutmeg, mace, or a little 
garlic. 

176. Berfnoiih Vegetables »--^Ve^ two carrots, two turnips, 
two onions, cut in pieces, put some vegetables at the bottom, 
then the meat in centre ; season, and cover over with remaining 
vegetables ; add a few cloves, a pint of water, or half ale and 
half water ; put in slow oven for three hours, take off the fat, 
and serve. Pour pounds of any inferior part of beef wiU eat 
tender done thus. 

176. Ox iTatZ.— Cut them at the joint, although I prefer 
ihem sawed through the piece; have ready some chopped onions 
and a little herbs ; roll each piece in flour, place them carefully 
in the pan, with some of the onions and seasoning ; add a pint of 
jRrater, bake three hours, take off the fat, and serve. 

177. Ox Heart and Kidneys* — The heart does not enjoy a 
very high reputation. I mean not only with the wealthy, but 
wiiji the laborious part of the population, in consequence of the 
difficulty experienced in cooking it properly. It is thus generally 
left on the hands of the butcher, and consequently sold cheap ; 
but I trust these receipts will occasion a change, and induce them 
to purchase those provisions which are now despised. 

178.'— Wash an ox heart in several waters, cut it in six pieces 
leng^ways, like steak, lay a few slices of potatoes at the bottom 
of the pan, then a few slices of bacon, then the heart, then bacon 
again, and then potatoes over all ; a few slices of beef suet, 
instead of the bacon, if none handy ; it should be cut thin ; 
season as you fill up, add half a pint of water, bake one hour, 
and serve. 

179.-*If a small heart, buy half an ox kidney, cut out the hard 
part, and divide it into small pieces, and mix it with the heart ; 
if you can get a cow-heel already boiled, which is the case in 
hx^ towns, it may be added in pieces, omitting the bone. 

180. Calves^ Sheep's, Fig's, or Ox JECeart, stewed whoUj-^ 



74 0DTSB*8 BAKING STEWlKO-^AlT. 

Fill a hetit, as for roasting, with stuffing, No. 464 a. Put in a 
lour qttart pan a piece of fat bacon half an inch thick, tad on it 
tibe heart, ti^e thick part downwards; cat into slices some 
potatoes, carrots, turnips, and onions, and a ^ece of bacon cut 
in dice ; season it with, three teaspoonfuls of salt and one of 
pepper : fill up round the heart until the pan is full, put in a 
pint of water, and bake for two hours. A teaspoonful of sugar 
and three of browning may be added. 

181. — ^Tongues, brains, and liver, ooght to be set before 
putting in the pot. The tongue should be boiled for ten minutes, 
and ihen skinned. These may be done in the same way as the 
preceding. 

182. — ^But supposing you have all these, and you wish to 
mix them together, then cut them into thin slices, leaving out 
the br«in ; put Ihiem on a dish, and for every pound of meaA 
season with one teaspoonM of salt and a quarter ditto of 
pepper, and two teaspoonfuls of flour ; then have one onion and 
half a pound of potatoes cut in slices to each pound of meat» an^ 
place in the pot as before, mixing the brain cut in pieces ; add 
half a pint of water to each pound of meat ; bake according to 
size. 

Layers of suet pudding may be used instead of p^toes, and 
cover it with paste. 

183. Good JPlain Family Irish Stew. — Take about two 
pounds of scrag or neck of mutton ; divide it into ten pieces, 
lay them in the pan ; cut eight large potatoes and four onions 
m slices, season with one teaspoonful and a half of pepper, and 
three of salt ; cover all with water ; put it mto a diow oveA Ika 
\mo hours, then stir it all up well, and dish up in de^ didies. 
If you add a little more water at iiie commenoement, you can 
take out when half done, a nice cup oi brotL 

TJie same simplified. — ^Put in a pan two pounds of meat 
as before, which lay at the bottom; cover them with eight whole 
onions, and these wil^ twelve whdle potatoes ; season as bef(»re ; 
covt^ over with water, and send to the oven for two hours. 

Almost any part of the sheep can be used lor Irish stew. 
A gallon pan is required for this and the preceding receipt. 

184 Ox Tongm, Potivd and Braksed.^*! send you tiiis 



0OTEB*8 BAXllXO e^JEWISa-PAX. ft 

reodpi as a iKmne bouche, it being a dish worthy a first-class 
picnic or the laoe-ooiirse. Take a tongue from the pickle, and 
vaah it okan ; cat off a part of the rough pieces of the root» 
put a thick slice of bacon at the bottom of the pan, and 
over that a pound of lean beefsteak or veal, and then the 
tongue turned round to fit the pan ; have a cow-heel, parboiled 
and ready boned, place it on the tongue, and cover it with 
another slice of bacoUi and a slice of beef or veal ; season with 
two teaspoonfuls of pepper, a little powdered ginger and cloveSi 
one bay-leaf, one carrot sliced, and two onions sliced ; add two 
win^lassfuls of brandy or sherry, four of old ale, and one quart 
of water; cover well over, and put in a slow oven for three hours, 
take off the cover, and put a piece of board with a weight on the 
top until cold, then the next day turn it out of the pan, which 
you can do by placing the pan in hot water. But should you 
wish to use the tongue hot for dinner, take it out, and when 
done with it, put the remains in and press, as before described. 
The vegetables may be also pressed in with the meat or served 
hot round the tongue. 

The remains of pickled ox tongues are very nice, intermixed 
and placed in a pan, and pressed, when they will turn out like 
oollaied head. A tongue boiled in ^ain water will take about 
two houif . 

185. Ox ToTtgives^ Fresh amd Pickled. — ^Pnt in the pan, an 
above, add two carrots, four turnips, four cloves, ten small 
dumplings, (see No. 949,) fill the pan with water, add either a 
little bay-leaf, thyme, or winter savory; stew in an oven for 
three hours, trim and dish up with vegetables, and dumplings 
round, making soup of the broth. For fresh ox tongue, proceed 
as above, adding three teaspoonfuls of salt. 

186k Ftfo^.— Take two pounds of ihe leg of veal, ix meat from 
the shoulder, or the neck or breast, in fact any part, cut in pieces i 
season it with one teaspoonful and a half of salt, and a half oi 
pepper, and add a quarter of a pound of bacon cut in slices. 
To vary the seasoning, use herl», (No. 460 a.) It will also 
be very good with some suet pudding, previously boiled in small 
balls, if you omit either potatoes or stuffing. The pieces of veal 
should be rolled in flom* ; add half a pint of water, if with 
'potatoes, and more, if pudding or stuffing ; bake one hour and 
a half» and serve. Mushrooms may be added. 



76 SOYEb's BAKINO STEWmChPAK. 

187. Parcliase six calves' tails, and after having had them 
washed, cut them ahout two inches in length, and cook them 
as ahove, with the addition of more vegetahles, as carrota^ 
turnips, <&c. They are excellent and nutritious thus. 

188. — Brown Itagout of Veal, — ^Take two pounds of the 
hreast, cut it into rather small pieces, ahout the size of an egg, 
roll them well in flour, put some fat in the j&ying-pan, fry the 
meat until a nice hrown, take it out, and then fry four onions, 
two turnips cut in large dice, and one carrot the same ; when 
hrown take them out, put the veal and vegetahles into pan, season 
with two teaspoonfuls of salt and one of pepper, add a pint of 
water, to which has been added four teaspooninls of browning; 
put into oven for one hour, skim the fat, shake the pan, 
and serve. A few herbs and a little ham or bacon is an im- 
provement. Beef, mutton, lamb, and pork may be done the 
same way. A teaspoonful of sugar is an improvement. 

189. Fillet of Veal for an Extra Dinner, — ^A small fillet of 
veal, boned and stuff with Ko. 464; tie it up tight, put some fat 
into a fryingpan, about an inch deep; put in the fillet, iry 
gently until one side is brown, and then put in the other side 
until brown; fry in the same pan some large button onions 
whole, some turnips and carrots, cut in pieces the size of eggs ; 
put the fillet into a pan, with a piece of fat bacon at the 
bottom; fill up round it with the vegetables; put another 
piece of bacon on the top, add some seasoning to the vege* 
tables, and a pint of water; put on the cover, so that the 
steam does not escape ; put it into a slow oven, giving a quarter 
of an hour for each pound weight. When served take out the 
fillet, put the gravy into a small basin, and skim off the fat ; 
pour the gravy over the veal, and either serve the vegetables 
round the fillet or separate. A little browning is an improve- 
ment. 

• 

190. The following is another favourite dish of mine : — ^It is 
to lard a calf s liver with about twenty pieces of bacon (see No. 
459), put about a quarter of a pound of fat or dripping into a 
frying pan, fiy for twenty minutes imtil of a nice brown colour, 
place it in the baking stew-pan, also fry a quarter of a pound of 
hacon cut in dice, twenty large button onions, twenty pieces of 



80TEB*S BAKINQ STEWIKG-PAK. 77 

earrot^ twenty of turnip ; when a nice colour throw two ounces of 
flour over them, and stir ; three teaspoonMs of salt, and a small 
one of pepper, two of sugar; put all this into the pan, add three 
pints of hot coloured water No. 462 a, and a hunch of sweet herhs; 
shake the pan well, and place in oven for two hours ; skim the 
fiit and serve. These preparations are for a large sized liver. 
Pig's, lamh's, and sheep's liver, is excellent done thus. You 
may place all the ahove ingredients in the haking pan without 
frying any; it will be very good, though not so savoury in 
flavour, 

191. Betf'h'la-Mode, — Take a piece of the thick part of the 
rump of beef, about four pounds, not too fat ; take half a pound 
of fat bacon and a calf s foot ; cut the bacon into pieces about two 
inches long and half an inch square, lard the beef through with 
the bacon (see Ko. 469), place the beef in the pan, and also the 
foot, divided in two, and a bunch of sweet herbs, two middle- 
sized carrots, cut into squares, and twenty button onions, or 
four or six large ones, cut into slices ; add half a quartern of 
brandy, a teaspoonful of salt, half ditto of pepper, one pint of 
water, put the cover on the pan, to prevent the steam escaping, 
and send it to the baker's for three hours ; should it be done 
at home, turn the pan so that the heat is equal on all sides ; 
when done remove the fat from the top, put the beef in a dish, 
with the foot on each side, and the carrots and onions round ; 
throw the gravy over ; take away the herbs. This, you may 
perceive, is a most exquisite dish, will keep good many days in 
winter, and five or six in summer. It is good cold. 

192. The same plainer, — ^Proceed as above, adding half a 
pnt of old ale instead of the brandy, or a wineglass of vinegar 
and an ox-foot instead of a calf s-foot. Any piece of the fleshy 
part of the ox is good done so. 

193. The same, to he eaten coZc^.-^Cut the beef into square 
pieces, of a quarter of a pound each, cut ten pieces of lean 
bacon three inches long, have a cowheel already boiled in about 
two quarts of water, with two onions, pepper and salt, and a little 
vinegar ; take the cowheel and remove all the bones, and place it, 
with the meat and bacon, in the pan, with the liquor in which 
the heel was boiled, two carrots cut into small dice, ten gherkins 
^ into slicesi and sent to the oven for three hours; take off tho 



78 BOYmfs BAKiNa STirvmro-FAJr. 

cover, And place a fiat piece of board on the top of the meat, wiili 
a heavy weight, so as to make it firm ; and when cold use it. It 
is very good for breakfast. To remove it from the pan place the 
pan in hot water for a few minutes, and turn it over ; it will 
come out easily, and cut like brawn, or it may be cut from the pan. 

194. Leg, Breast, Scrag, and Hhacf of iiaw5.— rThese may 
^ be done as follows: — Put it into a gallon pan, with one 
parrot, two turnips, one leek, cut in thick slices, thirty youpg 
button onions whole, three teaspoonMs of salt and one of pepper, 
cover with water, and set it on the fire, or in your oven for 
one hour ; at the end of one hour put in one pint of peas, a 
}ittle green mint, and a teaspoonfril of sugar ; set it by the side 
of the fire or in the oven for half an hour longer, and serve. 
This is for a leg or joint of five pounds weight; for a larger one 
take 9i UtUe longer time. A bunch of parsley and sweet-herbs 
mi^ be added, but should be removed when served. The 
flavour is exquisite, and may be served with vegetable or with? 
out, as liked, but then the broth should be strained, and the 
vegetables served separate, or the broth made into spring <» 
pther soups. 

195. PorX?.— Any part, not too fat, is exceedingly good done 
in this way : Cut two pounds in slices, rather large and thin, 
season with salt and pepper, then add a few slices of fat, then 
some slices of potatoes, then pork and then potatoes, until all ^ 
in ; add half a pint of water. Bake one hour and a half. 

196. Anoiker way with Apple,— rCiit the pork in thick pieoesi 
peel two baking apples, four onions, and eight potatoes, cut them 
m slices, season with pepper and salt, and, if liked, a little 
powdered sage, intermix the vegetables, lay the slices and the 
vegetables together, half a pint of water, or enough to cover it. 
Bake two hours and serve. 

197. Another, simpler, — ^When in a great hurry proceed thus : 
—Put in a dish two pounds of pork in slices, one onion, one pound 
of potatoes, also slicied ; two teaspoonfuls of salt, half of pepper, 
one of flour ; mix all well together, put it in the pan with half a 
pint of water. Bake one hour and a half. A Utde bone may 
be used with the meat. 

ICia. SfikU J^k wiik Fea4i.rrrT9ke two pounds of the belty 



BOTBB*S BAKnrO nVWIKO-PAN. 79 

cf pork, oat into large dice, wash half a pint of split peas, put 
them into a thiee-quart pan, with some pepper, and half a carrot 
eat in amaU peoei, fill it up with cold water, send it to the oven 
ibv two hoars, stir up the peas well hefore serving. A few 
TBgetaUes maj be introduced. Bice may be used instead of peas. 

199. 8aU Park may be used thus : Take a four-quart pan* 
out ap the pork and some greens, remove the stalk, &Jice them, 
•nd aJao add four onions sliced, four doves, and one teaspoonful 
of pepper } press it well down ; put over it a quarter of a pound 
of dripping, add a pint of water, and stew ior three hours ; a 
little salt may be added if the pork is not salt enough ; it will 
make 9fL excellent soup if filled up with water half an hour 
previoua to using. 

Bed cabbage may also be used, but first boiled for ten minutes 
in plain water; then add half .a pint of vinegar and twelve 
peppercorns, if handy. 

200. Oreen Peas and Pork» — ^Put a piece of salt pork, about 
two pounds, into pan, with a quart of peas ; fill up with water, 
add two teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper, one of sugar, two 
onions ; bake for three hoars. Salt beef is also good ; a little 
mint may be added. Three pints of large peas alone, with a 
little dripping, is good as above. 

aoi. Cabbage and Pork, — Cut two good Savoy cabbages 
in thin slices, wash them, put half in pan, then a piece of pork 
about two pounds, or either ham, bacon, or salt beef; season as 
loregoing receipt, add the remainder of the cabbage; seawaL 
again ; add, if you have it, four cloves, or pepper corns, fair 
onions, and a bunch of sweet herbs : do not fill it with water ta 
the brim, or it will boil over. Bed cabbage may be used the 
■ame way, only adding half a pint of vinegar, and if beef, two 
ouDoee of dripping. 

202. Haricot beans and other pulse may be done precisely the 
•ame way. In fact, all dried pulse may be here used, and 
I oannot too strongly recommend both the dried haricot beans 
and lentils. I have also latterly tried the dried green pea, well 
soaked for twenty hours, and dressed as haricots and lentils. I 
find that one pmt absorbs two quarts of water. It makes an 
agreeable an well as eoonomioal food. 



80 80TEB*8 BAKINa STEWING-PAK. 

203. Betfcmd Park, — Semi- Carthusian JTa^Aton.— -SanBages, 
ceivelas, sayeloyg, beef sausages, knuckles of ham, and salted 
pig's feet and tongue, which are daily to be obtained in London, 
jnaj be dressed in this way : Buy two good savoys or white 
cabbages, cut them in four, take out the hard staU:, and boil 
them for ten minutes in water ; place them in a dish to drain ; 
cut the quarters -^in into four, lay some at the bottom of the 
pan, then a few sausages and saveloys, season with salt and 
pepper, and then fill up the pan; then add two ounces of 
dripping or suet, half a pint of water, bake one hour and a half, 
and serve with cabbage under, and sausages on the top. 

Bed cabbage with saveloys are preferable ; then add one gill 
of vinegar, a few peppercorns ; stew them longer, and serve as 
above. I have tried with raw cabbage ; it is not bad, and saves 
time. 

Two or three onions sliced may be added, or one large Spanish 
onion. 

This receipt will do for pig's feet, knuckles of ham, trimmings 
of ham or pork, a piece of cooked brisket of beef, which is generally 
sold underdone, in which case the cabbage should be done first 

Sheeps' and pigs' tongues are very good done in this way, and 
they make a cheap and wholesome meaL 

204. Large Dutch Sahhits. — ^Put into a one gallon pan a 
rabbit, cut into about eighteen or twenty pieces; peel eight 
onions, twenty potatoes cut into thin slices ; also half a pound 
of bacon cut into dice, season with salt and pepper, then 
place the meat and potatoes in layers, add nearly a pint of 
water ; cover over and bake two hours ; shake the pan round and 
serve. 

205. Curry Babbits, — ^Proceed as above; only add to the 
water two teaspoonftds of curry powder; let it well mix, or 
season with it at the same time as the other seasoning. 

The same may be done with rice instead of potatoes, but use 
two quarts of water to every pound of rice. One pound of good 
rice ought to weigh five pounds when boiled. 

206. JPlain Babbit, Chickens, or JPigeons for Invalids,-^ 
The rabbit should be cut into nice pieces; the chicken in 
quarters i the pigeons into halves; place it in a two-quart pai^ 



SBXZ-BOABTmO IN BAKIKO STEWIKQ-PAN. 81 

wHih a quarter of a pound of bacon cut in dice, a Utile salt and 
pepper ; a few sprigs of parsley, and half a pint of water, if the 
pan is not quite full ; fill up with some small pieces of veal ; put 
a plain paste over all, No. 317 ; put cover close over, and bake 
one hour. 8kim the fat off, and serve. 

fiOW TO tSE THB PAN FOB SEMI-BOASTING. 

The deep inn diati at the bottom of the pan is to contain either 
pudding; gravy, or vegetables, the grating above is to lay any meat» 
poultry, fishf or game on, you wish to cook by this process. 

207. Sihs qf Betf semi'roasted,-^Vw[c}xBae two ribs of beef, 
bone them, then season the interior of the meat with salt and 
pepper; roll the meat round like a cheese, using a piece of 
string or a skewer to keep it in that position ; make a quart of 
batter, as No. d77A; put it in your pan, which previously well 
grease ; put the grating over, and lay your meat on it, surround* 
ing it with potatoes eiUier whole or cut ; allowing from twelve 
to fifteen minutes for each pound of meat, according to the 
state of the oven. Dish up the beef with the potatoes round, 
and serve the pudding in the tin, or turn it out on a dish. The 
beef may be stuffed with stuffing. No. 464. 

Nothing is more otrjectionable to me than to see salt put on 
the top of a roast joint, and water poured over to make the gravy. 
The only way to remedy this is to put a gill of boiling water 
and a little salt on the hot dish you intend putting the meat on, 
turning the joint in it once during the interval of a minute i 
and* whilst carving, the juice from the meat will mingle with 
it and make a good gravy. Half a teaspoonful of colouring, 
mubh improves its appearance. This is applicable to all roasted 
or semi-roasted joints. 

For large ribs of beef or sirloins, you can put the salt on the 
bones at ^e back of the joint, and pour half a pint of boiling 
water over $ not however disturbing the meat. 

Brovm gravy. No. 2, or broth. No. 1, will be found pife- 
ibrable to either of the above. 

208. Mutton semi'Tocuted, — Half a leg of mutton, about 
four pounds, potatoes and pudding, if liked, tmder, will take 
about one hour. Shoulder tixe same. 

209. Pork semi'VOMted, — Place in the bottom four apples, 
peeledf four onions sliced, and potatoes, and over that a joint of 





82 SEMI-BOASTIKa W BAXim STEWIKChPAK. 

pork, rubbed with salt and pepper ; Bprinkle a little sage ; add 
half a pint of water in the pan : bake for two hours. 

For a change, pork should be purchased the day blefore using, 
covering it all over with salt ; and then scrape it well before cook- 
ing it, makes it eat short and savoury. 

210. Lamb semi-roasted, — Boil some spinach in salt and 
water, drain it well, and chop it up; put it in the pan, sea- 
soned with salt and pepper; put potatoes over the grating, 
and then the joint of lamb ; small ribs or shoulder will take an 
hour ; leg, one hour and thirty minutes. Dish it up wiiii the 
spinach separate, the iat having been removed from it. Greens 
of any kind may be done in the same manner, particularly the 
young leaf of the white beet, which is an excellent substitute for 
spinach, or even chopped nettles : these are also good under 
pork, veal, or beef, as also is a Yorkshire pudding, as at ribs of 
beef. No. 176. 

211. Poultry semi-roasted, — ^Almost any kind of vegetableSi 
such as carrots, turnips, onions, potatoes, celery, or mushrooms^ 
may be put raw in the pan and cooked under poultry, as weE 
as cabbage, spinach, or greens, previously boiled and chopped. 

1st XeMOM.— -Pluck, draw, and stuff a middle-sized fowl ; peel 
and cut in middling-sized pieces about half a pound of carrots, 
the same of turnips ; place them in the pan witii half a pint i^ 
Water, half a teaspoonM of salt, one of sugar, and half of peppsr ; 
put the grating over, placing the fowl on it, surrounding it with 
peeled potatoes, season a little more, bake for an hour, and serve ; 
also rub a little butter or £Eit over the breast, or cover it with a 
few slices of bacon ; a little colouring may be added to the gravy. 

This receipt is applicable to all kinds of birds, game, or 
poultry, allowing about ten minutes baking to every pound of 
large poultry or game, and the smaller ones in propcnrtion. 

212. Babbits, stuffed, put sliced onions in the bottom of the 
pan, if liked, or boiled rice, previously seasoned, and a bit of 
butter, &c.; put half a pint of water; bake thirty-five or fifty 
minutes, according to size, and serve. 

If any joint happens to be too fat, it will not do to put a 
Yorkshire pudding under, as the fat would prevent it setting ; 
but if either greens, boiled rice, or potatoes, aj:e added, you wH 
l» able to press the fat off with the back of a^poon, or a plate, 

the vegetMe presseii (see Aigfj^ivdix,) and seiTe sepai'ately. 



•(mm'S BAKING STEWIK€kPAir. 8i 



a Jomi with grofoy only, — Put in the pan half 
a pint of water, together with half a teaspoonful of lalt, half 
that of pepper. When done, take off the fat, add a little oolour- 
ing, pour under the joint, and eerve. 

VSBFUL HINTS ON THE FIG. 

Onoe or twice a year every cottager ought to kill his pig. If a 
pig ii waAed and kept dean, it loftens the skin and allows it to 
^ipuA i in fkot, a pig thus treated comet much quicker round ; it is 
prored that a pig at fourteen monthfl, kept clean, ia equal to one at 
eighteen which is not attended to. llie same day some of the liver 
my be fried, hot the rest can be used in the pan as follows : — 

213. Cut it into large dice; put two ounces of fat or dripping into 
frying-pan, cut up a quarter of a pound of bacon into small dice, 
fry them for five minutes, and then shake over a teaspoonful of 
flouTy put in the tinr, with one teaspoonM of salt, half ditto of 
pepper, fry it for five minutes, add a giU of water, keep stirring, 
^nd put it into pan, with a pound of turnips cut in small dice, 
fbnronionicutin four,and half a pmt of boiling water; put into 
a slow oven for fifty minutes, and then serve with toasted 
fippets round the dish. A bunch of herbs, No. 460, may be added. 

y«al, sheept', lambs', and ox liver, and kidneys, may all be 
Aone the same way ; less time for lamb and more for ox ; any 
other vegetables may be used, and particularly mushrooms. 

214 Feo^— Take six pounds of veal usually used for roastrog, 
tab it with salt, put half a pint of water in the tin, and potatoes. 
iibova, and then the veal; it will take two hours. When it is 
served, take off the fat frbm the gravy in the pan, and pour over 
fh0 tmI, reserving the fat for puddings. A piece of bacon and 
sreens should be boiled at home, or a small piece of bacon may 
M placed with the potatoes ; dish the veal with the potatoes, and 
baoon round it or separate ; add a little oolourmg to gravy. 

A pieoe of veal stuffed may be roasted thus. Or, for gravy, 
sMike meltBd butter No. 410, with four teaspoonfuls of Harvey 
sauoei or ketchup, and pour it over. 

215. Ihad in the Sole, — No, 1.-- May be made in either a 
Udng-dish, pie-dish, or tih. Get about two pounds of trimmings 
of eiiier beei^ mutton, veal, or lamb, not too fat, aad cuitk tiW& 

^2 



84 fiOTER^S BAKING STEWING-PAK. 

into pieces, each about the size of a small egg ; season with salt 
and pepper, make about two quarts of batter, second class; 
grease the pan well, put in the meat and batter, and place in a 
slow oven for nearly two hours, and serve hot. 

No» 2, with Potatoes. — ^Proceed as before. When the pan is 
ready put about two pounds of previously boiled potatoes, cut in 
slices, and bake as before. 

No. 3, with Peas. — ^Proceed as before, only adding about one 
quart of good green peas, previously boiled; broad beans maybe 
used the same way. 

No. 4.^-Eemains of cooked meat may be done the same way, 
but it will take less time to cook. 

No. 5. — Calves*, or any brains, previously parboiled in 
water* and the skin removed, well seasoned with pepper and salt, 
and a few slices of bacon added to the batter, make a veiy 
delicate dish. 

No. 6. — Six larks or twelve sparrows, with a slice of bacoA 
skewered round each, with the batter, and put into the oven for 
two hours. 

No. 7. — Ox cheek and sheeps* heads, previously cooked and 
nicely seasoned, with the addition of a little chopped onions 
added to the batter, is an economical dish. A few slices of 
cooked potatoes may be added. 

No. 8. — ^Truss a rabbit for roasting, make a stuffing with the 
liver, &c., chopped up, bread-crumbs, beef-suet, and seasoning; 
stuff the rabbit ; lay on the bottom of the pan a thick slice of 
fat bacon, and over that a slice, one inch thick, of beefsteak, and 
then the rabbit, to which add two quarts of batter ; place in the 
oven for two hours, and serve hot. This is enough for a large 
&mily. The rabbit may be cut in pieces; boiled cauliflower 
may be added. 

No. 9. — Eemains of previously cooked hare may be done in 
the same way, with some currant-jelly in the stuffing. 

No. 10. — A blade-bone of pork, two onions, cut in slices, and 
Ifour potatoes sliced, pepper and salt, and one quart of batter 
^ut over them ; place in the oven one hour, and serve hot. 



80T£R*S BAKIKG STEWING-PAK. 85 

JVb. ll.-*»R6maiiiB of salt pork, or any roast meat, may all be 
done in this way, and varied according to the taste of the 
partaker. 

BemainB of any kind of fish may also be done thus, with 
previously boiled potatoes. 

216. Jugged J7ar0.-*Cut a small hare into pieces about the 
size of eggs, cut half a pound of bacon into dice not too small, 
lay both on a dish, mix together three teaspoonfuls of salt, one of 
pepper, four of flour, three of chopped onions, one of powdered 
thyme and bay-leaf, four cloves, and a quarter of a nutmeg, 
grated ; rub the hare and bacon with these ; place them in the 
pan. Having saved the blood, chop up the liver and mix with 
it, add to it a wineglass of brandy, or two of port or sherry, or 
one of vinegar, or half a pint of ale, stout, or porter, and a pint of 
water ; put this in the pan, and cover over with pudding-paste No. 
819 ; put on the cover ; shake the whole well to make it mix; and 
bake for three hours, if an old hare ; if a young one two hours. 
It is equally as good cold as hot. If eaten hot, a little currant- 
jelly should be served with it. 

Some stuffing No. 465, made into little balls, can be added 
with advantage, or even a few suet balls, and two tablespoonfuls 
of oolouring ; mix with the water. It can be done plainer, with 
salt and pepper and water only ; or twenty small onions and eight 
potatoes, out in slices, maybe added, or even mushrooms may be 
pot in. 

217. Jugged Sa/re, Marinaded.-^li should be cut as above, 
and put into a bowl, with half water and half vinegar to cover 
4t; &ur teaspoonftds of salt and one of pepper, four of brown 
sugar, two onions cut in slices, a little thyme, a bay-leaf, cloves, 
perppercoms ; turn them now and then for four days, and cook as 
above, with the marinade in. 

218. How to cook all kinde qf Fish in Baking Stew-pan, 
—Take six pounds of any fish, cut it croesways, two inches 
thick, put them in the pan, with salt, pepper, chopped onions ; fill 
it up ; well intermix the seasoning ; when full, put in a basin four 
oonoes of flour, which mix with a quart of water, which pour 
over, shake the pot, well cover it, bake two hours in rather a hot 
oven ; seasoning to be four teaspoon^ls of salt, one of pepper, 
two onions, and chopped parsley ; onions may be omitted, but use 
herbs and mixed spice. 



88 0OTER*i BAXXSQ 8TBWIirCh^AHi 

Halibut, Hake, ling, conger, ood, pike, caip« tendi, perchf and 
piper may be done the same way. 

Kice may be added in the following way : — ^A pound <^ pre- 
viously boiled rice, two quarts of milk, a little sugar and salt, two 
ounces of butter, a squeeze of lemon, and put into the pan with 
the fish. 

The addition of a few spoonMs offish sauc-e will greatly vary 
{his dish. When done aerve, without breaking tiie piece, if 
possible. 

219. Pieces qfMik.'^^ar a two-quart pan, cut iorxt mackttvl 
in three pieces each, which roll in flour, place them in rows in 
{he pan, two teaspoonfuk of salt and a half pepper, two teaspoonfult 
of chopped onions ; fennel or parsley may be added ; put in two 
gills of water, place cover over, bake one hour in a hot oven, and 
aerve, having first taken off the oil from the top. 

220. To Pickle Mackerel and EJerfinge in ike JBahii^* 
pan. — ^When these fish are plentiful they may be done at 
follows, and will be found to keep and eat admirably well ^— 

Out the mackerel into three pieces, enough to fill the one- 
gallon pan, lay some at the bottom and season, and eontinu* 
thus until full; the seasoning should be fourteaspoonfula of aaU^ 
two of pepper, ten peppercorns, four onions sliced, a handM of 
parsley, chopped ; add over all one quart of vinegar and a funt o£ 
water; place the cover over, and bake slowly for two hooxa; 
some sweet herbs or a bay-leaf may be added. 

221. Herrings, pilchards, and sprats can be done as abova^ 
only a little variation to the seasoning and the time of cooking, 
according to the size ; when quite cold pour some oil or lard on 
the top ; put the cover on, and keep out the air aa much aa poaaiUe^ 
and they will keep a long time. 

222. Halibut, hake, ling, oonger eel, plaice, gurnet, oodlinga, 
sturgeons, and haddock, may all be pickled aa above. Cut 
halibut one inch thick and three inches in length ; place them 
at the bottom of the pan ; season over as before, and ona te** 
apoonM of ground ginger and sweet herbs. 

223. Baked ^els-^-^Cxit several eels in pieces of three inchea 
Jong; zvB them in fiour,put them in the two-quart pan, aeaaon with 



80YER*S BAXXRa WnSWTSOhVKSt, 87 

salt, pepper, chopped onions, a litUe thyme ; contmue until full, 
add a glass of sherry, half a pint of water, cover over with some 
erast, either pie or padding, put on the lid, and hake one hour. 
Seasoning, two teaspoonMs of salt, half of pepper, and two 
of chofq^ onions. Take the oil off, and serve. 

224 A Piece qf Berf stewed in JBalnng Pan.-— Get three 
wing ribs of beef, bone them, season with salt and pepper on 
each side ; to vary the flavour, chopped parsley and a Utde spice 
may be added, or even chopped onions ; roll it round, and fasten 
it with string ; rub more salt on it, and place it in the pan ; 
send it to the baker's ; four pounds will take one hour. This 
is the best part to bone, but most other pieces may be used. 
Staff by making an incision in the lean part, and binding it 
up with string. 

226. — If you wish a Yorkshire pudding and potatoes to be 
baked at the same time, they may be placed in it, and when it 
oomes home aQ will be found excellent. Instead of the gratings 
in the pan, it may be divided in two> one for pudding and the 
other for potatoes. 

ML joints may be done the same way. 

226. 3h Sail Meat in Pan,'^8pioe Be^.^^Ttke four pounds 
of the thick ribs of beef, or any part, put in the pan, with apint 
of water, a teaspoonfhl of allspice, two of salt, two bayleaves, 
two eschalots, or a little garlic ; stew three hours, either in oven 
or on the fire, keeping the cover well closed ; half an hour before 
being done add a teacupful of the raspings of bread, half a pint 
of vinegar, two teaspoonfuls of sugar, simmer, dish up, and sauce 
over. 

227. Salt Jlleatj^^o plain-boil this in the oven, which can be 
done when no fire is required at home, put six pounds of salt 
beef into a six-quart pan, with four whole parsnips, two large 
carrots, and six dumplings; send thepa to the oven for two 
boors ; dish up the meat with the vegetables, and dumplings 
round. The liquor can be saved and made into soup; the 
vegetables can be cut in two. 

All kinds of salt meat can be done the same. K the broth 
be too salt add pome water, and use for pea-soup. 



£8 CN BOASTIKa 



ON BOASTING, 

Mt SSAB Eloise, — My last letter you must have misonderstood. 
I did not mean that roasting before the fire should he entirely done awny 
with, but that, on the score of economy, it should not be practised in 
the cottage, but that my new plan of semi-roasting should be followed. 
I was the more particularly led to these remarks, from having, last 
Sunday, immediately after church, visited several colliers' cottages 
belonging to a Mr. Pope, close to this place. My motive for ddng so 
was to see the economy of the cottage, as well as the kind of food 
they had for dinner. The first I went into had a piece of the beUy or 
flap of beef, just taken down from a dangle, having been roasted. It 
waa lying in the dripping pan, and was a great deal over done ; in 
&ct, dried. Noticing, in the course of conversation, that the fire 
was spoiling it still more, I took a plate from the table, and placed it 
against it, so that it should not bum. The old lady noticed my pro- 
ceeding, and asked me if I was going to have a l^t of dinner with 
them P " No, thank you, my dear madam," replied I. " Then let 
me take away the plate, as it will spoil our ^nner." "How. do 
you make that out?" I asked. <*Well, the fiit is not yet half 
out of the meat, and my Thomas will not eat fat, unless it is 
dripping in the crust of pies or puddings." I then perceived that the 
meat was, in their estimation, a second consideration, and that they 
paid the price of beef for the fat, paying eightpence per pound for the 
meat^ when they could get the fat at fivepence. There was scarcely 
any nutriment left in the meat — that which weighed five pounds 
before roasting, woghing hardly three pounds when done. There 
were seven to dine off it — ^the grandmother, the two parents, and 
four children. There was, besides, a few potatoes galloping on the 
fire— no other vegetable, and no puddings or sweets for the children, 
but excellent home-made bread, and not bad sm^U beer. You may 
now perceive that some little improvement in this style of cookery 
would be m immense saving to these cottagers, and out of the three 
shillings and fi>uipence they paid fisr the beef, if done in the pan, 
with a pudding and potatoes under, and the meat not qmte so fat, 
they would have got a good dinner and plenty for the next day, 
either hot or cold. If t^hey wanted dripping, they could get fiit 
at four or fivepence, instead of eightpence, and prepare it as No. 
464c. It will keep for a long time, without turning sour. 

I visited, immediately after, several other of the cottages, in which 
I found st^ks cooked dry, indeed, some half burnt, chumps of mutton 
half done, ha>f legs of mutton neither boiled or baked; in one a 
sheep's head baked, and very nicely done, with potatoes round it, which 
was very inviting; there- was also suet dumplings for the children. 



ON B0A8TIN0. 89 

with treacle over. This cottage was cleaner than any of the others, 
and the children were neatly dressed, and about to change their 
costume, in order to do taW Jastice to the treacle domplings. In 
giving l^ose roq^-cheeked urchins a few pence, I retired much gratis 
led hj my visit to these antediluvian workmen, who pass one-third 
of th^ life in the bowels of the earth. 

You will perceive from what I have said, that to the artisan, 
labourer, and even the small tradesman, the old mode of roasting, 
which comet to us fh>m Homeric ages and primitive times, is an extra- 
vagant and wastefbl mode of cooking, and the sooner it is reformed 
the better. Though it is preferable to meat done in a baker's oven, 
if well attended to. 

But first let me add one more remark on the experience of that 
day. Betnming to the Normanton Hotel to dinner, we had a beau- 
tiftil dish of greens; and what do you think those greens were? 
Oreen young nettles, which I had asked the gardener to gather fat 
me the day previous, and in less than half an hour we had a basket 
fblL I picked them with gloves, but he made a grasp at a large 
quantity, and I found that they did not prick him. He got them as 
tuA aa a monkey oonld get chestnuts out of hot cinders. The cook 
dressed them, acoordmg to my directions, exactly like spinach, and 
most who ate of them thought they were spinach, only rather too hot 
of pepper, which is their peculiar nature. 

I found that they are known in this part of the country as being 
good and wholesome in the spring ; but because the people can have 
them for nothing, they will not partake of them ; like the water- 
cre«es, that rot in every clear stream in the neighbourhood. I intend 
to make another trial or so on thenettlecf, which I will forward to you. 

HOW TO ROAST. 

HAYiKa, thus fiir, given you some of my experience as regards 
roasting, I will, in as few words as possible, describe the simple plan 
of roasting before the fire, which, I must again repeat, is &r ^om 
bdng economioaL The artisan requires as much nourishment us 
possible, and should not pay extravagantly for fancy Joints, or those 
called the best, because most in vogue for roastmg. Let the wealthy 
pay fbr thir taste, as they do for their Raphaels, Rubens, and 
MuriDoe; it is no reason, because they do so» that a labouring man 
should imitate them, and because one has a leg of mutton, the other 
should likewise have one. This very day I have seen, ip Nottingham 
market, all the best joints sold by the butchers, and nothing but the 
necks of mutton and the coarse pieces of beef left, which, they tell 
me, hang for days and days, lessening both quality and quantity, and 
then are sold at twopence or threepence per pound. This causes 
tlie joints .most in vogue to bo dear, whilst there is quite as much 



90 OK THE EOOKOmr OF BOAmHSG BT QAS. 

nouriBhiBeiit in proportioii in thoee sold at half the price when cooked 
frerib. 

I must here, however, detcribe the proper system of roasting^ 
either before the fire or by gas (see note). And as an invariable rule^ 
all dark meats, sach as beef and mutton, should be put down to a 
sharp fire for at least fifteen minutes, until the outnde has a coating 
of osmazome or gravy, then remove it back, and let it do gently. 
Lamb, veal, and pork, if young and tender, should be done at a 
moderate fire. Veal even should be covered with paper. 

Very rich meat, if covered with paper, does not require basting. 
Fowls, &o., should be placed dose to the fire, to set the skin, and in 
about ten minutes rubbed over with a small piece of butter, pressed in 
a tpoaa. Boast meato should be dredged with flour, just at the time 
when the gravy beg^ to appear; ti^e flour absorbs it, and forms 
a coating which prevents any more coming out. Harei and small 
game the same. 

COTTAGE BOASTING. 

In the first place, the fire must be made np, and deored from 
ashes. Place before it the dripping-pan, and from above the fire, 
suspend firom a hook a piece of worsted thread, sufficiently strong to 
bear the joint, and a hook suspended at the end. Have a piece of 
stick forked at one end, which place against the mantle-piece^ so thai 



mmmm"^* 



Note. 

OK THE COMPORT AND ECONOMY OP BOASTING BY 
GAS, WHERE IT CAN BE PROCURED. 

Experiment made at the Boyal Nanal School, Qteemoich Sotpital, 

hy M, Soyer,^ 

Two interesting trials have taken place at the above establishmenii 
with an apparatus manufiustured by Messrs. Smith and PhilHpi^ 
patentees, of Skinner-street, Snow-hiU^ under the superintendence of 
M. Soyer, whidi in their results finally determine the qnestaon 00 
the merits and economy of roasting by gas. 

The result of the first trial, which took place on the 8th Inst., 
was, that 86 legs of mutton, weighing 288 lbs., were roasted at a 
cost of Itf . %d. 

In order to arrive at more positive results hi regard to its eoonomy, 
a second trial was deemed requisite, which took place on the lltii 
inst., when equal weights of mutton were cooked. Twenty-three 
joints, weighing 184 lbs., were roasted by gas, at a cost of 10^., 
with gas supplied at ^, per 1000 feet. When cooked, t^e above 
weight of meat was found to weigh 145 lbs., drippinp: 19 lbs., an4 



oonJkxm BOifirriifo. 91 

U iMpi ihe tfaMtd at a raffident diitaiioe from the fire. By haviiig 
two pieoes of ^tk, the distances can be easily managed. Twist the 
woff^ed; pat on the joint; give it a sufficient distance from the 
fire. This is quite equal to dther a smoke or bottle-jack fbr cottage 
use. 

Every cottage ahould have a moveable piece of iron or steel 
screwed on the mantel-piece, with teeth fixed in it, bo as to 
be able to hang the joint at any distance from the fire. See 
Appendix, at end of book. 

TIME TABLE FOB BOASTINa 

228. Ten pounds of beef will take from two Hours to two 
boiirs and a half roasting, eighteen inches from a good fire. 

8ix pounds one hour and a quarter to one hour and a half, 
fourteen inches from the fire. 

Three ribs of beef, boned and rolled (see No. 207), well tied 
round with paper, will take two hours and a half, eighteen 
inches from tiie fire, and only baste once. 

If beef is terj fkb, it does not require basting ; if very lean, 
tie it up in greai^ paper, and baste welL 

229. Eight pounds of veal will take from one hour and a half 



gravy, or osmaxome, 2} lbs., thus showhig the actual loss to be 
18}^ lbs. Twenty-tluree joints of mutton were cooked in the usual 
way, as adopted at ths institntioii, namely, in one of Count Rom- 
fbrd's ovens, hitherto considered the most eocmomical way of roasting. 
When put in they weighed 184 lbs., when done 132 lbs., dripping 
18 lbs.» gravy none, thus showing a loss of 84 lbs. The coke con- 
somed in this oven was 102 lbs., coal 80 lbs., thus proving the great 
eeonomy of gas over the oven by a saving of IS lbs. of meat, 1 lb. of 
dripidng, 2f lbs. of gravy. The value of the saving is as follows :-^ 
IfMt at 8d. per lb., 6b, 6d.; dripping at M* per lb., 6d^ and gravy 
at If. 6<{. per lb., 4t. 1^., makhig a total of 11<. O^d, 

The eKperiments took place before the governor. Sir C. Adam, 
and lady. Sir J. Liddle, M.D., Lieut. Bouse^ general superintendent^ 
Lieut. Monk, Messrs. Lee and Seville, inspector of works, who ex- 
pressed their admiration at the deaidiness and nmplidty of the 
apparatus. * 

In order to show the advantage of the system in all its branches, 
a rump steak was broiled by M. Sqyer, before the company present^ 
who partook of it, and who dedared it was peifeotioDy and fitee from 
aU odour.— ifeoAonicf' Magatim. 



92 -OOTTAOI! BOAfiTmO. 

to two hours, eighteen inches from the fire ; if stuffed, at least 
two hours. 

Chump, or loin and kidneys, of four pounds, will take one hour 
and a quarter ; haste well. 

Six pounds, of hreast one hour, twelves inches from the fire. 

Six pounds of the shoulder or neck the same. 

Calfs heart, stuffed and tied up in paper, three quarters of an 
hour. 

230. Mutton (leg of eight pounds), will take one hour and a 
half, eighteen inches from the fire. 

Saddle, ten pounds, one hour and a quarter to one hour and a 
half, eighteen inches, measuring from the fiat surface. 
Shoulder, one hour and a half. 
Loin, one hour and a half. * 

Breast, three quarters of an hour. 
Neck, one hour. 

231. Lamh, according to size, hut in the same proportion leas 
than mutton, but ought always to be well done, and placed 
nearer the fire ; if a good fire about fifteen inches from it. 

Pork should be well done. 

Leg of six pounds, with skin over, two hours, eighteen inches 
from the fire. 

Loin of the same» one hour. 

Neck, the same weight, one hour and three-quarters. . 

Pork rubbed with salt the night previous, and then scraped 
before roasting, improves the flavour. 

In roasting of beef, mutton, lamb, pork, and poultry, place a 
dripping-pan under the meat, with a little clear dripping or fisd^ 
which should be very hot when the meat is basted. A quarter 
of an hour before serving add half a pint of water to the £&i in 
the dripping-pan ; dredge the meat with flour and salt. When 
the meat is dished up, pour the contents of the pan into a basin, 
straining it through a gauze sieve kept on purpose ; remove all 
the fat, add a little colouring and salt to the gravy, and pour it 
into the dish under the meat. 

Yeal and poultry should have half the quantity of water put 
in the pan, and that, when strained, added to half a pint of 
thick melted butter, adding two teaspoonfuls of any sauce for 
flavour, as Harvey's, Soyer^s, or ketchup, &c. 
Sage and onions to be served witii pork. 



OK BAKIKa MEAT IK OVEX. 93 

Hint saaee with lamb. 
Cnrrant-jelly with mutton. 

232. JRocMting qf Poultry. — I proceed thu« : Hang it up 
with worsted, about ten inches from the fire, lot it hang for ten 
minutes to set the skin, then press into a wooden spoon a 
piece of butter or hard dripping ; when the skin is very hot 
rub it over with the fat in the spoon until all is melted, then 
draw it back to about twelve inches : a good sized fowl will take 
three quarters of an hour, chicken twenty minutes, middle-sized 
goose one hour, turkey, fourteen pounds, two hours and a half 
hare, large, one hour and a half, if very young three quarters 
of an hour. Never baste them, but dredge all, after having well 
rubbed them over with butter, as for fowls. 

Small game should be placed nearer the fire. 

I always stuff both poultry and game with stuffing No. 464, 
and make the gravy as for the joints. 

Apple sauce with goose. 

Currant jelly for hare. 

Fried bread-crumbs with grouse. 

Bread sauce with partridge and pheasant. 

ON MEAT IN BAKER'S OVEN. 

THOtraH this s^rstem of cooking meat is fax from receiving my appro- 
bation, espedally on the score of economy, still, it would be very 
ridiculous on our part, Eloise, to think that we should be able 
entirely to reform this semi-barbarian method of spoiling food. No; 
it must be a work of time that vrill prevent small folk from running 
to the baker's on Sunday with either their legs or shoulders under their 
arms. The reason why they have recourse to such a process 1b at 
once simple and easily expired: first of all, it gives them no 
tvodUe, and hardly any of them study economy, so long as the 
dinner will cook itself, though in company with a score or two ot 
othar joints, perhaps no two being of the same size or quality. 

How can a baker, even one of the most conscientious of that usefrd 
class of individuals, be answerable for the proper cooking of this 
awkward squad, if such we may term it. How also can he prevent 
the potatoes galavanting from one dish to another, or even joints 
dbanging dishes, and by mistake, going to the wrong home — impos- 
sible ! Is he to be answerable if an eel crawls out of Mrs. Arm- 
strong's pie (having been put in whole), and, after cuoking, being 
foond reposing under one of Mrs. Smith's ribs ? or can he prevent 
Mrs. Jenkins's cod's head staring a neighbouring pig's fiice out of 



&4 oir BAKDro meat iir oveit. 

oountenance ? No more would be be able to obviate tbe above evils, 
tban be could disentangle tbe fragrance wbicb emanates from each 
bomely volcano, forming, as it does, an aerial coating of osmazome 
mider tbe same roof. 

Moral. Is it not more easy fbr a mother to nurse her own child, 
tban having to take charge of the whole of her neighbours' children? 
therefore, if every bonsewiie would cook her Httle family dinner at 
home, instead of entrusting it to the nursing care of a baker's oveo^ 
she would, by so doing, though at the sacrifice of a little time, save 
both nutriment and money. 



A VBW KSW AKD USEFUL HINTS ON BAKING HEAT. 

Iv we, Eloise, caimot entirely r^brm the evils eaused by tbe above- 
described system, I feel myself in duty bound to g^ve a few hints on 
the subject of ameliorating this wasteful method of cooking, which 
will tend both to economize and vary the flavour, as well as the sub- 
stance, of any dish that might be doomed to undergo this ordeal. 

First of all, I would refer you to such receipts on semi-roasting 
joints, such as beef, veal, mutton, pork, and lamb, done in thebaking- 
stewing-pan, and proceed in tiiis iiist»ancfl precisely the same. In 
respect to vegetables, p^iddings, xioe^ &e. Ac., being anxious that every 
person should partake of a portion of vegetation with their daily food, 
independent of potatoes, I have tried all the following receipts, which 
I beg to forward you, feeling confident they will prove agreeable to 
ear readers' palate, aa well as eondndre to thdr health. 



AN IMPBOVED BAEING-DISH* 
{For drawing qf v)U6h me J^^peniix at end oj hooh) 

i vsa to inform yon that I have bad made, at a very trifling expente^ 
an improved bakhig-<Ksh. Its principles are as follows : on the rim ot 
tiie dish, I have attached a moveable fidse grating of wire, to the 
middle of which is fixed a trivet, three inches in h^gbt. I then pot the 
pudding at the bottom of the dish, then put in the grating, on whidi 
I place tbe potatoes; then on tbe trivet I put tbe meat. By this 
neans the surplus &t, which would otherwise ihU in the padding 
and prevent its setting, descends on the potatoes, making them deli- 
eate and crisp. This is applicable to any joint, and the meat being 
more elevated than usual when placed in the oven, causes it to 
partake more of the flavour of a roast joint than it does when pot 
immediately over the puddSng or potatoes, the vapours arinng front 
which soddens the mea^ instead of leaving it brown and weQ 
earboiuzed. 



OV BAKIKO MSAT IN OVBV. 95 



A SEBIES OF RECEIPTS OK BAKED MEATS. 

Sihs qf Betf baked. — Take three long ribs of beef, bone, 
MMon, stuff, and roll as for semi-roasting, No. 207 ; put either 
Torkshire padding or any kind of vegetable in the ^tom of 
the dish, then put on the grating, on which put your potatoes ; 
then toL on the trivet at about three inches above the grating ; 
when done, pour on a hot dish half a pint of boiling water, 
qnarter of a teaspoonful of salt ; pour this under your joint, turn 
it over ; when hot, turn over twice, and carve ; it will make a 
ridi gravy. Serve the potatoes round, or separate ; the pudding 
to be served on a hot dish. 

By chopping the bone small, good broth and soap may be 
made. K the oven happens to be too hot, cover the joint with 
a piece or two of plain paper, well greased. 

A pece of meat weighing about eight pounds, will take 
from one hour and twenty to thirty minutes, giving always as a 
rule £.*om ten to twelve minutes to every pound of meat, for 
joints of from six to twelve pounds. 

Any other piece of beef of an inferior part, requires to be 
baked slowly, allowing fifteen minutes to every pound, and if too 
lean, may be larded, as No. 459. 

2. JPbr a "Leg cf Torh — ^Peel six apples, six onions, and 
twelve potatoes ; put the apples and onions at the bottom of the 
dish, adding half a pint of coloured water, a teaspoonful of salt, 
one of sugar, half one of pepper ; lay the potatoes on the grating, 
tiie meat over ; give fifteen minutes to every pound of meat. 
Half a pint of sage and onion sauce may be poured over the 
apples and onions previous to baking. Any joint of pork may 
be stuffed with sage and onions. 

8. MUei qf Veal, — ^I have also tried the following : — ^Prepare 
a fillet, which stuff; oil a sheet or two of clean paper ; cut in 
slices four ounces of bacon, two onions, one carrot, one turnip, a 
little celery, if handy, a little thyme and bay leaf; wrap up the 
veal and the above in the paper, and bake for two hours ; when 
done, take out the veal and serve with vegetables round it. It 
will be delicious ; pray let me know your opinion. 

Any part of vecd may be done the same. Tried baeon may 
be serv^ with it. 



06 OK BAKIKO MEAT IN OYES* 

Also half a pint of melted butter, one tablespoonful of ketcbup, 
two of Hatlfey's sauce, well mixed ; pour round and serve. 

4 2h bake Mutton, — Proceed as for beef, time according to 
size, putting under a Yorkshire pudding, or some rice boiled 
with curry in it, or boiled French haricot beans, which I have 
used for a change now and then. I also put a piece of pudding" 
paste, half way up the knuckle of a leg of mutton, which pre* 
vents it getting dry, that being so much thinner than the other 
part. 

Loin and shoulder the same ; if a piece happens to be lean 
and dry, butter it over^ cover it with paste^ and bake as usual. 
The shoulder, baked*, like the leg of pork, is good with apples, 
potatpes, and onions. 

5. Lamb, being very delicate, allow only ten minutes per 
pound for the ribs, the same for the shoulder, twelve minutes 
for the leg. Spinach, peas, asparagus, and sprouts, are best witih 
lamb. 

All kinds of poultry may be done the same, though roast them 
by all means, if you can ; but if wrapped up in paper, as for 
fillet of veal. No. 3. in this series, it will be excellent baked. 

6. Vegetables loilk baked Meat, — ^My new plan of cooking 
vegetables with baked meat is as follows : — Scrape, wash, and 
cut in pieces two pounds of carrots, boil them in salt and water 
till three parts done, drain them in cullender, then put them at 
the bottom of your dish, season with half a teaspoonful of salt, 
half that of pepper, add half a pint of coloured water, then 
place the potatoes on the grating, the meat on the trevet, and 
bake as above.* 

Any such joints as sirloin, skirt, edgebone, or any other jnieoe 
of beef, weighing from eight to ten pounds, should have a tea- 
•poonful of salt sprinkled over, rubbing on also a little fat or 



* In the way of vegetables for beef, I have tried tomipi, Jem* 
salem artichokes, parsnips, &c. Also for veal, lamb, and mutton^ 
spinach, greens, oaulifiowers, Brussels sprouts, all parboiled and weQ 
drained. A pint of second class batter, added to either the parsnips^ 
artichokes, turnips, carrots, peas, asparagns, &c, using only one pound 
instead of two, but qxdte boiled, and omitting the gravy, eiUier U 
these will turn out like a pudding. 



MEAT PUDDINGS. 97 

Dutter ; roast as above, dish it up with the gravy, taking off the 
&t, if any, serving the carrots and potatoes with it or separate. 

7. Another Way, — If an ordinary dish, put the potatoes over 
the carrots, also a few onions sliced, and the beef on trevet, as usual. 
When the meat has been too lean, put a piece of fat on the top, 
and cover the beef with a coating of pudding-paste, No. 319. 
When done remove the paste, and brown the meat with a shovel, 
like yon would do venison ; both meat and paste are excellent, 
the meat being full of gravy. 

MEAT PUDDINGS. 

233. Puddings, — ^Although the same word with the samo 
meaning exists in all European languages, yet it may properly 
be said to be peculiarly English, as pudding has become quite a 
national dish. The various counties of England have each a 
particular way of making them, and it is almost impossible to 
give any method hitherto untried. 

The first most important point is never to use any meat that 
is tainted, fbr in pudding, above all other dishes, it is least 
possible to disguise the confined process which the ingredients 
midergo ; the gradual heating of the meat, which alone would 
accelerate decomposition, will cause the smallest piece of tainted 
meat to contaminate all the rest. Be particular that the suet 
and fat are not rancid, ever remembering the grand principle, 
that everything which gratifies the palate nourishes. 

Tainted meat, you wiU justly say, is bad in whatever way it 
may be cooked ; true, but take a joint which, in the middle of 
summer, from some trifling cause, has some small part a little 
tainted, and which is ofi^on sold cheap to those who cannot afibrd 
to purchase better, this, by the worst part being cut away, 
rubbed with a piece of charcoal, if for roasting, or a piece of 
charcoal put into the water, if for boiling, at once renders it 
sweet ; but our great national dish cannot be subjected to this 
process. Although the tastes of all people differ ; some may like 
the haut gout of high venison or the wild fowl, and possibly 
might like the same in pudding, yet ?t is our duty here to 
point out those things which are nourishing, and likewise 
those that are not; therefore, I here send you some receipts 
which will please eveiybody's taste, everybody's palate, and, I 
hopo, everybody's poeket. 



98 UEAH PUDDINGS. 

234. JBetf Fvdding. — Take about one pound of fteak, cut 
lengthways in three pieces, and then slantwajs at each ind 
instead of in lumps ; but should you buy cuttings of meat froi 
the butchers, then remove all the sinew and over fat, and ci 
the large pieces slantways, put them in a dish, and sprinli 
over with a teaspoonful of salt, a half ditto of pepper, and a tei 
spoonful of flour, the same of chopped onions; mix we 
together, make six or eight ounces of paste as No. 319, roll it \ 
the thickness of a quarter of an inch, or a little more, pi 
pudding-cloth in a basin, sprinkle some flour over it, lay in yot 
paste, and then the meat, together with a few pieces of fal 
when full put in three wineglasses of water ; turn the paste ov< 
the meat, 90 as not to form a lump, but well closed ; then tie tl 
cloth, not too close on the paste, or it will not be light ; boil- 
fast in four quarts of water for one hour; take it out, let it stai 
a few minutes to cool the doth, cut the string, turn back tl 
cloth, place a dish on the top, and turn it over on it, remove tl 
cloth, and serve. 

235. — 11 you choose to add a kidney it may add to tl 
richness of the gravy, also a few oysters, or even a mushrooi 
!rhe crust should always be cut with a knife. 

K you carefully follow the above instructions you will have 
pudding quite perfect, the paste as light and as white as sno^ 
and the meat tender, with a thick gravy. 

236. — OhservaUon* You will perhaps be suiprised that I reoommei 
it to be boiled £ist instead of sunmering. I do so, because the met 
being enclosed in the paste, and sometimes in a basin, is alone sulge 
to the action of simmering in its own gravy. These puddings lose 
less amount of nourishment in cooking than any other kind. In 
large pudding a few sliced potatoes is not bad. This may truly ' 
considered as much a national dish as roast beef and plum puddin 
and being so, it is surprising that it is so often made badly, and inc 
gestible : the pieces o£ meat and £sit often cut two inches sqnai 
instead of smaller pieces ; the pudding, sometimes left half out o£ tl 
water, the crust becomes hard and black, and the moat very dry. 

237. Boast Betf Pudding. — ^Any remains of cold roast b€ 
may be done as follows : mince about one pound of cooked me 
cut in dice, put on a dish, add one teaspoonful of salt, half th 
of pepper, one of flour; fill your paste Avith it, add a gill 
prater; covw over as usual, shake it well, tie it up in a dot 



MEAT PUDDINOfl. 99 

and b<»l for half an hoiur, and serve. A litde chopped onions or 
pandey may be introduced. 

288. Another Way. — ^Proceed as above, only add for every 
pound of meat two ounces of either gherkins, pickled wahiuts, 
or mushrooms, chopped fine or sliced. 

239. Mince Beqf Pudding with JEggs. — Proceed as above; 
omit the pickles, adding boiled ham or fried bacon instead, cut 
in dice, also add two hard-boiled eggs cut in dice ; mix all 
together ; boil as above, white sauce over, or melted butter. 

%40. Veal Pudding, — Cut two pounds of raw veal, four ounces 
of ham, or lean bacon ; season deHcately with a teaspoonful of 
salt, the half of pepper, a little floiu* and chopped parsley, a gill 
of water ; proceed as for the other puddings, boil two hours, and 
serve. 

241. Calves* Brain and Tongue of any hind, previously 
cooked, — Soak and wash a brain clean, boil it for a quarter of 
an hour in a quart of water^ in which has been added a tea- 
spoonM of salt, a quarter of pepper, and a little vinegar, if handy. 
Let it get cold, then mould the pudding; cut the brain in half- 
inch slices, lay thin slices of tongue, previously cooked, on the 
bottom, then of brain ; season with salt, pepper, parsley, and a 
little chopped onions ; continue until full ; then mix a teaspoonM 
of flour with a gill and a half of milk, or water, and pour in ; 
dose the pudding, and boil one hour and serve. Cut it with a 
'knife. Two hard-boiled eggs cut in slices, would improve it ; also 
'a little gherkin, chopped ^le, wiU vary the ^vour. 

242. Sheep* s, Lamh*s, and Pig*s Brains, and Tongue Pud- 
'dings, — ^Proceed as for Calves', but will not take quite so long i^ 
oooking. 

248. Caites* Head and Tongu/e.-^Tki^ remains of any &om a 
^previous dinner can be used for puddingy with or without a little 
brain: proceed as for bruin pudding. A little curry powder 
added will improve it. 

This will produce a better effect on the table as a pudding, 
than a common hash ; for the great principle in cookery is to 
please the eye, as well as the palate. 

244. Lamhi Veal, or Pork Liver P«cMui9<-^^q\^^'^'q:b^ 

h2 



100 HEAT FVDDIKOS. 

of liver in slices^ ako two ounces of bacon; season With a tea^ 
spoonM of salt, a half of pepper, one chopped onion, one of 
parsley ; mix it well with the bacon, dip each piece of liver in 
ftome fionr, and lay the liver and bacon in the pudding, with a 
^11 and a half df water ; boil one hour. A teaspoonful of colour- 
ing mixed with the water will give a rich appearance to all 
pudding gravies. 

245. The same, a plainer Way, — Cut one pound of liver and 
two ounces of bacon into dice, a quarter of an inch square; 
season with only salt, pepper, and onions, a spoonful of flour, and 
a gill and a half of water ; lay it in the pudding, and boil as 
before. Stuffing No. 464 may be mixed with it. 

246. lAver and Kidney Pudding »-^-V}ii in a frying-pan two 
ounces of dripping, two ounces of bacon, in dice ; put it on the 
flre ; when the liver and kidney are seasoned, place it in the pan, 
and stir round until it is set ; each piece should be firm ; then 
add a tablespoonful of flour, mixed with a gill and a half of 
coloured water, No. 462a. When nearly boiling, place it in the 
pudding, tie up, and boil three quarters of an hour. A few herbs 
is a variation. 

247. Mutton Pudding, — Chump of mutton is the best part 
to make into pudding, which cut in slices as for beef pudding; 
in case it is very fat, add potatoes, and proceed the same. 

248. Sheep* 8 ILead, Tongue, and Trotters, previously cooked^ 
may be made into a very nice pudding, proceeding as usuaL 
A few pickled walnuts, sliced^ may be added. 

249. Ijomh Pudding, — l?ake the breast, and relnove the big 
bones ; cut it crossways, season lightly ; have some veal stuffing 
ready, and lay the meat and stuffing in alternate layers in the 
pudding, with a gill and a half of water to every pound ; boil one 
hour and a half; serve with melted butter over ^e pudding, and 
a little chopped parsley on the top ; it has an inviting efiect. 

Any part of the lamb may be done the same way. 

250. PorTc Pudding » — Get about a pound of pork, as lean as 
possible ; any cuttings will do ; cut them into slices ; season with 
a little chopped sage, a teaspoonful of salt, half of pepper ; 

roll the pieces up, and put them in the pudding with a few slices 



HEAT PUDDIKOS. 101 

•f potatoes, onions, one apple; add a gill and a half of water; 
cover as usual, and boil for one hour and a half. 

251. Sabbit Pudding, — ^A rabbit cut into about sixteen or 
eighteen pieces, and a quarter of a pound of bacon, sliced ; season 
in proportion to size, as before, and if for a numerous family, add 
ten potatoes and four onions, sliced, and half a pint of water ; boil 
for two hours, or according to size. Boiled rice may be added 
instead of potatoes. Well intermix the meat with the vegetables 
or rice. 

252. Chicken Pudding. — Cut one into eight pieces, half a 
pound of bacon, cut into slices ; season with one teaspoonM of 
salt, half of pepper, two of chopped parsley, a little thyme, and 
one captain's biscuit, well broken; fill the pudding with the 
meat, add half a pint of milk, boil for one hour and a half; 
serve with melted butter over, and chopped parsley on the top. 

253. Pigeon Pudding. — ^Pluck, draw, and stuff two pigeons 
with t)ie stuffing No. 464 ; then cut some large thin slices of beef, 
and some of the bacon ; season well ; roll the pigeons in the meat 
and bacon, lay them in the pudding ; boil four eggs hard, cut 
them into quarters, and fill the cavities with them ; mix a tea- 
spoonful of flour with half a pint of milk, or water, close up, and 
boil for one hour and a half, and serve. 

2%^ same in Brown Oravy. — ^Add a tablespoonful of colour- 
ing, a little more salt and pepper. 

Young wood-pigeons may be done the same way, but will 
take half an hour longer doing. 

254. Partridge and Cabbage Pudding j'^Mi a Savoy cab- 
bage into four pieces, removing some of the outside leaves ; boil 
it for ten minutes, let it get cold, press the water out, cut 
off the thick root, and cut the other in slices ; then stuff the 
partridge as No. 464, place slides of bacon round it, lay some 
cabbage in the pudding, paste as usual, season the partridge, and 
lay it in with six or eight button onions, then the remainder of 
the cabbage, a giU of brown gravy. No. 2, or coloured water. No. 
462 A : boil two hours, if an old bird, or one and a half, if young. 

255. Young Booh Pudding, — ^If these young inhabitants of 
the woods and forests are eatable in pies, I do not see why we 
shonl4 not give the^^^ fdler tb^ir wild career, a soft bed of repose 



• 102 MB AT FUBDIKCHSt. 

HI a pudding crufit. Open them by the back, then draw them, 
divide them into two, and then into quarters ; extract the big 
bones, leaving the flesh only ; beat each piece flat, and season 
with salt, pepper, and a little grated ginger ; make a stuffing 
with the liver, No. 464 b. Lay on the crust a sHce of bacon, then 
ihe birds, then a slice of steak ; season with, any aromatic herbs, 
or chopped onions, leeks or mushrooms j add a gill of ale, or 
wine, gravy or water ; boil one hour and a half, and serve. 
Pigeons may be done in the same way. 

256. FUk JPudding. — Take two pounds of cod fish, cut in 
slices about the size of flve-shilling pieces, half an inch thick ; 
fill the bowl with the paste, as usual, lay some of the fish on the 
bottom, season with salt, pepper, a little chopped parsley, onions, 
H little flour and pieces of the liver, if any, then the fish, and 
80 on until Ml ; add a gill of milk or water, shake it well, tie up, 
and boil one hour, and serve. A little bay leaf and thyme may 
be added, if handy. 

All fish may be done the same way« varying the flayoiur 
according to taste^ 

257. Msh Pudding, a plainer TFoy.— Cut one pound of any 
fish in small pieces, season with salt and pepper on a dish, a 
little flavour ; mix well, put in the paste with a gill of water, and 
if you have a wine-glass full of any fish sauce, add it, cover 
up, boil one hour, and serve. 

258. Mackerel I^udding, — Cut off the heads of two mackerel, 
cut each one in four pieces, keeping the roe in ; fill the pudding 
with the pieces, season with salt, pepper, a Httle chopped onions 
and fennel, add a giU of water, boil one hour, and serve with 
fennel sauce over. 

259. Bel Pudding.''-4^i in long pieces, season with salt, 
pepper, chopped onions, parsley ; add a gill of water ; wine or 
beer is yeiy good, and proceed as for the others. 

260. Baked JPziddings.-^'Mj excellent friend, you must be of 
the same opinion as the rest of the world, namely, that variety 
is charming in almost every movement of life, therefore you will 
not object to my new proposal to send it to the baker's ; when 
the oven is at a moderate heat, they will be found excellent^ 
l^tJaag different to a pie* The doth of course is not required. 



MEAT PIES. 103 

only gprease the basin ; lay on the pasto when the contents are in; 
make the paste meet eqoally on the top, moisten with water, roll 
out another piece about a quarter of an inch thick, put it over 
when fit, and cut away the trimmings from the edge of the 
basin, egg it over, bake in a slow oven, giving about the same 
time as you would for boiling; when done, shake the basin 
well, to make the gravy the same thickness throughout, and 
serve, taming it out on a dish ; perforate the top. 

261. JPuddinffs liaJf steamed cmd boiled, — ^Put in a pan a 
quart of water, when boiling, put your basin in with the pudding 
in it, boil gently one hour or more, according to what your 
pudding is made of; add boiling water occasionally, so as always 
to keep the same quantity in the pot. By having previously 
well buttered the basin, when done, by passing a knife between 
the paste and the basin, you may tm*n or cut it out, and pour 
over any appropriate sauce you like. They may also be steamed, 
as now almost every kitchen possesses steam pans, in connexion 
with the boiler of the range; or put some water in our new 
baking-pan, put in the pudding, and send to the oven. 

XXPOBTiirr OBSBBTATIOUri OV TEE ABOTB BBOEIPTS. 

I must not forget to tell you, Eloise, that any of the above sort 
of puddings, no matter what made ot, if sweet or savoury, is prefer- 
able made in a benn to being put in a doth, which is often very dirty 
in appearance; while, if bdled in a basin, the paste receives all the 
nutriment of tiie meat, which, if boiled in a cbth, would evaporate 
in the water, if by neglect it ceases boiling. If you wish to turn it 
well out, thoroughly g^rease the inside of your baiun when making. 

0» Puddmg Clothaj'^A. pudding cloth, however coarse, 
ought never to be washed with soap; it should be dried as 
quickly as possible, and kept dry and free from dust, and in a 
draw or cupboard free from smelL 

MEAT PIES. 

■Faxnotri to making any pie do not omit reading the very important 
remarks I have made at the introduction of fruit pies, see Index. 

902. Be^eah Pie. — Cut two pounds of steak into about 
twenty thin pieces, lengthways, M included, season them with 
two teaspoonfols of salt, oiie of pepper, and a little chopped 
herbs, and place them symmetrically on the dish, forming it hi^h 



104 HEAT PIES. 

in the centre. Add half a pint of water, in which has heen pat 
two tablespoonfuls of colouring. Cover over with paste (No. 317) 
half an inch thick, and bake for one hour in a slow oven. Pud- 
ding paste No. 319 may be used. For variety of pie-dishes see 
appendix. 

A little stuffing rolled up in the meat makes a change, and u 
fit for the best table. 

A few spoon^ils of Harvey's sauce is likewise a change. 

263. Family Steak Pie. — Take and cut two pounds of beef 
in slices, two pounds of potatoes, a quarter of a pound of onions ; 
season with three teaspoonfuls of salt, one of pepper; mix it 
well together ; put the meat and potatoes into the pie-dish, in 
alternate layers; add a pint of water; cover over, as above, 
and bake for one hour and a half. 

264. Veal Pie. — Delicate veal and ham pies can be made 
like the above, rolling up the veal and a little ham, or bacon, 
together, and a little stuffing, if handy. Proceed as for steak^ 
or as for family steak-pies. 

Pork pies may be made in the same way. 

265. Babbit Ptc. — Cut the rabbit up as for pudding 
(No. 251) ; roll the pieces in flour, then put them in the pie- 
dish, with some slices of ham or bacon; season with salt, 
pepper, chopped onions, nutmeg, (grated, if handy), according 
to size; add half-a-pint of water; cover, and bake. A tea* 
spoonM of curry may be added, instead of pepper. 

Por family rabbit pie proceed as for family steak pie. 

266. Fish Fie, — ^Proceed in every way as for puddings, and 
bake one hour. Oysters, muscles, perrywinkles, cockles, Aa, 
may be used. 

267. Save Fie. — If it is a large hare it is best to jug it, as 
No. 216, cut in half crossways. Save the back and legs for 
roasting, and with the front part, which cut in pieces, make 
the pie. Put some steak at the bottom of the dish, with salt, 
pepper, and chopped onions ; dip each piece of hare in flour, lay 
them on the steak, make some small balls of veal stuffing, which 
place in various places ; cover over with more steak ; add half^ 
a-piut of water ; finish with paste as usual. When baked, shake 
the dish to mix the gravy. The addition of a glass of wine, a 



TEQETABLES. 105 

few herbs, and two teaspoonfuls of currant jelly, is a great 
improyement. 

268. The Artisan's Pie, — ^Any pieces of meat, but not to» 
fat — ^four ounces of fat to every pound of meat is enough. Take 
two pounds of meat cut in slices, season it with three teaspoon- 
fuls of salt, one of pepper, four sliced onions ; peel four pounds 
of potatoes, out in thick slices, which place on the bottom of 
the dish, then a layer of potatoes, then the meat ; season well ; 
add a pint of water, and bake for two hours. 

Trimmings of meat of all kinds may be purchased in every 
large town, especially in London, and are the proper pieces for 
such economical pies ; in buying them, take care there is none 
tainted, as it will produce the effect as described in introduction 
of puddings. Cover with crust, as No. 319. 

269. JPoor Man's Potatoe Pie. — ^Wash and peel six pounds 
of potatoes, cut them in slices ; take half-a-pound of the fat of 
mutton or beef, or dripping, cut into small dice ; season the 
whole with a teaspoonful of pepper and three of salt; cover 
with paste. No. 319a, and bake one hour and a half 

A bloater, boned and cut np with the fat, makes a nice 
cihange of flavour. 

VEGETABLES. 

As I have befbre remarked, the food of man, in order to give 
proper nourishn^nt, should be often varied; in &ct, his health 
depends upon it, and nature seems to have g^ven him those instru- 
ments, the teeth, by which he is enabled to masticate both animal and 
vegfeti^le food, besides having provided him abundantly with vegetable 
produce, which seems the balance, in point of health, between that 
and rich animal food. It is to be regretted that the labouring poor 
of this country do not partake of more vegetables than they do at 
present. If we travel over the country, we are surprised to find 
how small a portion of ground is engaged in horticulture ; the oon- 
aequenoe is that, excepting near large towns, scarcely a vegetable is 
to be ohtained, and the poor are doomed to live almost entirely on 
bread and cheese and a small portion of animal food, not even a 
potatoe is to be bad during the winter and spring of the year. It is . 
Siud by some, that the cHmate being colder than on the continent, 
the blood requires more heating food, and that in the summrjr the 
English are as much vegetable eaters as their neighbours | if socU 



106 VEGETABLES. 

is tlie case, why not, then, add to the vegetables, in cookings then 
those elements which would give all that animal food does. 

The most important of all the produce of the field is wheat, bi 
that we shall treat of hereafter, under the head of bread. The mot 
important of vegetable produce is the potato, a root the £ulin 
of whose growth produced a famine in one of the most productii 
countries in the world. It is a root in universal use, and yet 
acknowledged to be by every one the least understood how to be cooke< 
A writer in a public journal, the other day, speaking of a well-boile 
pGbeAo, says " that at present it is a thing purely ideal — ^it has nev< 
come out of the pot, hi the experience of living man.'' And why 
Because people boil all potatoes alike. If you ask Betty why A 
boiled the potatoes in such a manner, she. answers, " My mother, < 
my sister, did so, and they were good." And so with everybod; 
little thinking that almost every potato differs ; even the produce < 
the same seed will often differ in the same field. This is caused I 
the different soils, and the different manures applied to those soils. 

The present potato is quite a different root from its parent on 
which grows in the Caribbean islands. 

Animal food, although flesh, differs in its nature, and reqnin 
diffei*ent cookery. A Welsh or a Kerry leg of mutton requires to 1 
treated quite different to a Leicestershire or Southdown. 

Thus it is with the potato. Some require quick boiling, othe: 
slow ; some plenty of water, others little ; some are best b^ed i 
their skins, others peeled ; some large ones require to be out in tw 
others will spoil if cut ; and so on through all the various g^radation 

I therefore consider it requisite, that if a potato is found not 1 
be good by one system •of boiling or steaming, to try anothe 
Boiling, as I have said before, is the most simple process of cooker 
and it is easily tried. 

Potato hoiled.-^Meg Dods says there are great varieties < 
potatoes, and ftQly as many i^ays of cooking them, but recon 
mends boiling in preference to steaming. Mrs. Bnndell pre&i 
steaming, or, if boiled, in plenty of water, and when half don 
some cold water and salt thrown in, and boil tmtil not ^nil 
done, and then left in the pot near the fire.* 



* This is the Irish peasant's way ^he wishes to fiust for six honn 
as it leaves the bone or moon in it. The origm of the word In Irisl 
au gJtealeach, is thMt, when a half-cooked potato is cot in two, tl 
centre shows a disk, with ti halo around it, like the moon. Th 
does not digest so quick, and allows the person who eats it to ^ 
longer without food, which I eonsider a great detriment to the coatix 
of ibfi Mt&auteht 



VEGETABLES. 107 

Mm. Glasse najn, Boil in as little water as possible, without 
burning the saucepan. 

Mrs. Acton gives only the Lancashire way ; this is, peeled 
and boiled slqwly ; when done, salt thrown over, and then the 
pot shook violently for some time, so that they are broken. She 
lenMurks that this method is not economical. 

Having given these, it is only right I should give my ideas. 
As I have before said, they all, perhaps, require a difierent 
system. K steamed, salt should be thrown into the water, and 
not on the potato, and when done, remove the steamer, and also 
the oover. 

270. Soui to choose Po^a^o^f .—-Observe, as a general rule« 
that the smaller the eye, the better the potato, as when they 
are too full in the eye they are either of an inferior quality, or 
are running to seed. To ascertain if they are sound, nip a 
piece from the thickest end with your finger nail ; if good, the 
inside will either be of a white, yellow, or reddish hue, according 
to the sort and quality ; if, on the contrary, they are spotted, 
ihey are bad, or getting so; but though this part may be 
slightly touched, by cutting a little off the outside they may 
prove fit for boiling ; though they ought to be bought, when in 
this state, at a cheap rate. Potatoes always get bad in the 
.^ of the year, Ae. lie old ones axe^g out. and the 
new ones for some time continue to possess but little flavour, 
and are watery when boiled. The old ones ought to be peeled 
and steamed, and mashed, or baked in an oven, under a joint, 
or fried in fat,^as No. 298 ; for when done whole in their skins, 
at this time of the year, the slightest spot spoils their flavour. 
The new ones are tasteless and watery, and, as I described above 
to you, are much better cooked when put in very hot water, but 
not boiling, than when put in cold, 

271. — ^If boiled, it may be that they require to be put into 
boiling water, or, may be, in cold, and either boiled quick or slow, 
bat this you must find out. Choose all about the same size, with 
a smooth skin, and when they are boiled and begin to crack, 
throw off the water immediately, as it only damages the root. 
Stand near the fire, with a cloiJi on, and serve in skin. Salt 
should be put into the water at the beginning. A watery 
potato will require quick boiling, and sometimes to be put in 
boiling water. If very watery, and they will not boil mealy. 



108 VEGSTABLESr 

put them into the pot in their skins, fill up with water, and i 
piece of lime the size of a nut, and they will turn out mealy. I 
is unnecessary here to explain scientifically the cause of this. 

272. New Potatoes — Should he cleaned, and the skin ruhhe^ 
off with a coarse cloth ; add a little salt if the skm is dry. Pa 
them into very hot water, and boil from fifteen to twent] 
minutes. Take them out of the water and let them draii 
before sending to table, throwing some salt over them. If verj 
small they will not take above ten minutes. 

273. Baked JPotatoes, with the skin on, should be chosen t 
large size (regents), placed in a slow oven and so that they do nol 
touch ; or if in a Duch or American oven, before the fire, thej 
should be turned often ; they will take from one and a half U 
two hours. If without their skins, they should be done in i 
brown pan with fistt, turning them occasionally. 

274 Baked Potato with Sausage {called 8oyer*s Potato),^ 
Take a large potato and cut out a round piece as big as a slul' 
ling, through the potato ; put in the scoop and remove some oj 
the inside, fill this with sausage-meat or veal stuffing, cover the 
hole with a part of what you cut out, and bake with cut pari 
uppermost. 

275. Mashed Potatoes,'^Afb&r having boiled twelve middling 
sized potatoes until mealy, peel them, if with the skins on, and 
remove the eyes or specks ; put them into a bowl, and take two 
forks in one hand, with the points of the prongs turned out- 
wards ; break the potatoes up with them ; when breaking, add 
an ounce of butter and a gill of milk or a little more to tiiem, 
and half a teaspoonful of salt, to every pound, and a pinch of 
pepper; they should be beat a great deal, until they become 
quite light ; they should never be hard like paste, as is often 
the case when stirred with a spoon. 

Potatoes, if large, might be peeled, and cut in four pieces, 
put in boiling water with some salt^ boiled rather fast, and well 
drained when done ; let the pan stand near the fire to dry your 
potatoes — ^three minutes will do it — and mash them as above. 

276. New Boasted Potato, — This should be a large potato 
•—the kidney kind preferred — should be half boiled, the skin 
remove^ put int^) fb baking dish; well ^bbed ynth butter or faly 



VegetablI:s« 109 

and dredged with a little flour, salt and pepper, and put into 
the oven, or before the fire, either in an American ol: Dutch 
oven, until done ; they ought to be of a nice brown colour, and 
are very relishing. 

277. Jerusalem Artichoke should be well washed and peeled, 
and pat into a saucepan of ioarm water, with salt in it ; boil till 
tender, then serve them up ; if to be mashed, mash them at once, 
with salt, pepper, and butter ; if whole, keep them covered until 
served. Melted butter over improves the look. 

They may be mashed with a little gravy; put in a dish, 
biead-Grumbed over, and put in the oven, and are very nice. 
Or they can be treated in every way like turnips. 

278. Tumtps, — ^Peel them, and boil in plenty of water, in 
which has been put some salt ; boil till tender, and serve either 
whole, or mashed. If mashed, they should be put in a saucepan 
over the fire, with a bit of butter, or some milk, salt, and a 
little pepper, and a pinch of sugar, mashed up until rather dry, 
and serve. 

A few capers mixed in the mashed turnip, is an improvement 
for boiled mutton. 

270. Swedes* — This wad a vegetable in very little use for the 
table until the year of the famine in Ireland, when M. Soyer 
prepared it for the viceroy's table. It should be treated in every 
wi^ like turnip, but ctlt into quarters for boiling. The middld 
■ize are only fit to use. 

• 

280. Carrot. — ^This root varies quite as much as the potato $ 
tome are quickly done, evexi in twenty minutes, and some require 
two hours. They should be scraped, akd boiled in water and 
salt; served cut in quartei^s lengthways. 

281. Tarsnip and the White Carrot, •^The same as the 
larrot. 

282. JRed and 1lV%ite Seet, — These should be washed, but 
not scraped, and put into the pot with the skin on ; when done, 
which is known by pressing the thick part, to see if it is soft, 
or by probing it with a skewer ; remove the skin, cut it into 
slices, put it in a pan, with either gravy, butter, or milk, and a 
little vinegar, salt and pepper, boil it up, and serve. It is also 
good when cold, for salads. 



110 VEOETABLBS. 



FIBST AND GENERAL LESSON IN THE COOKING 
ALL KINDS OF VEGETABLES. 

283. Asparagus is a vegetable between the root and the 
and requires more cooking, like the latter. It shonld b( 
scraped at the bottom part, tie them np in bundles ci not 
than twelve heads, have ready a pot of water, say three qum 
every hmidred heads, in which yon have placed one 
spoonM of salt, and if the water is hard half a teaspoon 
carbonate of soda; if they are a good size boil for t 
minutes^ and serve with a slice of toasted bread nndei 
melted butter separate, or cream sauce No. 424. 

This, when cold, is very good with oil and vinegar, sal 
pepper. 

The small, called tpreWf is veiy excellent broken sm 
clear 9(yu^, 

284 Celery, — Dress like asparagus, catting ojET the ; 
leaving the branches six inches long ; serve on toast, witiii i 
butter or brown gravy over, iying three or four sticks tog 

Sea JElxZc.— Clean the root and boil like asparagus, and 
the same on toast, with either melted butter or cream sauo 

285. Ch^een Cabbage and iSfavoy*.— These close-leaf 
tequire well washing and soaking in salt and water 
boiling ; the stems should be removed, and then boiled in 
gallon of water, with two teaspoon^s of salt and a little 
These proportions will do for all vegetables. If the plan 
iarge they shonld be cut in fdur. 

286. Sprouts, /Spring Greens, Turnip Tops, ^c. — 
only require washing before boiling, and boil till tender 
same quantity of water as above. 

287. Stetoed Cabbage or Savoys. — Cut in thin slices, 
drain, and boil till tender; drain them free from water ; pt 
a clean pot two ounces of butter or fat, and a little sal 
pepper ; when hot add the cabbage, and stir it well until 
dry, then throw over a tablespoonful of flour, keep stirrin 
then add a cupM of either broth, milk, or water, let Ix 
mmuteg, and servtf. 



VfiGEIABLES. Ill 

288. Spuiach requires to be well washed, and the Btalks 
picked off; boil a quarter of a sieve in the same quantity of 
water as above for ten minutes ; take out, drain, press with the 
hands or plate to remove the water, and serve it as plain greens ; 
or put it on a dean board, and chop it fine, put it in a stew-pan, 
witk a quarter of a pound of good butter or fiEit, a teaspoonful of 
ialt, two of flour, half of pepper ; place it on the fire, with two 
gills of milk or broth, lor a few minutes, and serve with toast 
round. More strong gravy may be added, or even milk or cream. 

289. Green Peas, — ^This, of all the pulse vegetables, is the 
most liked, and the most in use ; and perhaps in no country in 
Europe can they be obtained in the same perfection as in 
England. 

The water should be boiling, and say one quart of peas to 
two qnarts of water, with the same amount of salt as before'; 
put i^e peas in, leave the cover off, and boil till tender ; drain, 
and serve, with a piece of butter put on the dish. K mint or 
savory is liked, add it while boiling. 

290. Broad or Windsor Beans, — ^The appearance of this 
Tegetable is generally spoiled because it is boiled with a piece of 
iNicon ; they ought to be boiled alone like the peas, and very 
tasif and if young do not take longer. They should be served 
vith parsley and butter. When the skin is wrinkled they are 

891. JFkreneh and Kidney Beans^'-^'Readt tail, and string 
them ; cut them down in thin strips, or in the middle, throw 
\bem into boiling water, in which a little more salt than usual 
has been put ; boil for fifteen minutes, and serve either plain or 
with parsley and butter, and a Kttle pepper and salt. 

These are skins of the pulse, and are considered exceedingly 
wholesome for persons who take much exercise, and eat freely of 
miimal food ; they purify the salt of the blood. 

292. Brocoli and Cauliflower should bo put in salt and 
water some time before cooking, and require close examination, 
that no insects are inside ; cut off the root and the large leaves ; 
.fhej should be boiled in boiling water, and will take about ten 
minutes. There are a variety of ways of usmg these vegetables, 
bat in general a little too complicated for our work. 



112 VEGETABLES. 

293. Calijlo toer and Brocoli, with Cheese fifattce.— Boil two 
or three middle-sized cauliflowers, make half a pint of thick 
melted butter, adding a little cayenne pepper, if handy, grate 
four ounces of good cheese, Cheshire preferable ; mix this well 
with the sauce, and when boiling pour over the cauliflower or 
brocoli; set either in an oven or before the fire for fifteen 
minutes, until it gets brown ; the yolk of an e^^ may be added ; 
bread-crumb over, and serve. Kno grater, cut your cheese fine, 
it will melt in boiling. 

Jerusalem artichokes, Scotch kail, and Brussels sprouts, are 
also very nice done this way. 



PLANT CALLED THE THOUSAND HEADS. 

Ok seeing this plant growmg in great abundance in Yorkshire^ I 
inquired of the farmer on whose land they were — ^if they were a 
vegetable for the table, and their name ? when he informed me that 
they wiere intended for spring feeding for sheep, during the lambing 
season; that he never used them as human food. I asked him 
to let me have some to try and see how they eat. He did, and 
I cooked them like greens ; and an exceeding nice vegetable they 
are. They are also good stewed, and cooked with a piece of bacon. 
As they grow at a time of the year when other green vegetables ar6 
scarce, I consider them a valuable article of food. They are sowA 
about April, the small plant put out about October, and planted about 
three feet apart, and by March or April the whole field will be om 
luxuriant crop ci greens. 

Farmers in the vicinity of large towns would do well to undertake 
their cultivation, as they would find a ready sale in all such places^ 
At that time of year they are in full bloom, and are called by the 
above nngnlar name in consequence of the thousands of heads con- 
tinually sprouting from their root. The plant covers nearly one yard 
in drcumference, and bears no resemblance' to any other green I 
jlrecollect seeing, not even to Brussels sprouts. 

294. Saricots and Lentils, — ^No receipt is more simple, or 
easier done, than any of these vegetables ; there is hardly a cot- 
tage in France but what has them in stock, as they will keep 
good for years. 

Should you be short of potatoes, or supposing they are expen* 
sive, or even as a change, some of these are an excellent sub- 
stitute ; one quart will make, when cooked, four pounds of solid 
Ibod. 



TEOETABLBS, tlS 

HarieoiB, plain boiled, should be first washed, then put into the 
black iron pot one quart of them, with four quarts of cold water, 
one ounce of butter or fat ; boil them gently for three hours, or 
till tender ; the water will be nearly absorbed, if the haricots 
are good ; draw off the remainder ; mix in a pint of it three 
teaspoonsM of flour, half ditto of pepper, add it to the haricots; 
boU &r ten minutes, keep stirring, and serve, adding three 
teaspoonfuls of salt ; an ounce of butter is an improvement. 

A little meat of any kind may be cooked with them, just the 
came as dried peas, only these are to be eaten whole, and four 
anions in slices, Med, may be added with the seasoning, when 
the haricots or lentils are nearly cooked. The broth, if ample, 
when strained from them, may be used as soup, with bread in it. 

295.. LentiU, — ^Wash them as haricots, and cook them as 
such, putting them in cold water ; they will not take so long, 
but try when tender. Meat is exceedingly good boiled wiUi 
them, and they make good soup. 

These make an excellent salad, both in winter and summer. 
See Index. 

The liquor of either makes a nutritious soup, by adding fried 
onions, a little flour, pepper, and salt, and poured over bread 
previously sliced and put in a soup basin. 

I herewith send you the receipt I promised you on Kettles, which 
I tried while in Norfolk. 

296. iVe^^/etf.— Wash them well, drain, put them into plenty 
of boiling water with a little salt, boil for twenty minutes, or a 
little longer, drain them, put them on a board and chop them 
up, and either serve plain, or put them in the pan with a little 
salt, pepper, and a bit of butter, or a little fkt and gravy from a 
roast; or add to a pound two teapoonsfuls of flour, a gill of 
skim milk, a teaspoonful of sugar, and serve with or without 
poached eggs. 

TuTe^rdkary spring prodootlon. of which few know the 
l^ae, is at once pleasing to the sight, easy of digestion, and at 
a time of the year when greens are not to be obtained, invaluable 
as a purifier of the blood ; the only fiiult is, as I have told you 
above, Eloise, they ai*e to be had for nothing ; it is a pity that 
ehildrea are not employed to pick them, and sell them in market 
towns. 



tl4 TIGSTABIilft 

Ano&er nnitted vegetable is mangel wnrzel. The yottng leaj 
of the mangel wnr2el> cleaned and oooked as above, is extremel] 
good. 

In aU mj various visits to cottages daring this spring, ] 
have found but one where either of the above vegetables were id 
use, and that belonging to a gardener, who knew their value. 

These nettles are good during five months of the year ; foi 
even when large, the tops are tender. They make exoellent tea, 
which is very refreshing and wholesome.* 

296a.— iSWe^ Docks, also a wild vegetable, or weed, are verji 
good when done as follows, using about two-thirds of sweet dock, 
and one-third of nettles, boiled with a little carbonate of 8od& 
When done, strain them, and to about one pint basin full, add one 
onion sliced and fried, a sprig of parsley, a little butter, pepper, 
and salt ; put into a stewpan on the fire, stir, and gradually add 
a handM of oatmeal ; when you think the meal has been suffi- 
ciently boiled, dish up and serve as a vegetable. 

297. Large I>ry Green Teas. — One quart of peas, soak for 
twelve hours ; put into a pan with one gallon of water, some 
&t, six sliced onions, one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, one of 
pepper; simmer for two or three hours, or till tender, drain 
the peas, then add to them half a pound of flour, mixed in a pint 
of cold water, three teaspoonfuls of salt, a quarter of a pound cA 
batter j boil twenty minutes; serve with bacon over. 

Small dumplings may be boiled in it ; they will take half aa 
hour. 

298, Fried potatoes, — ^Peel a pound of potatoes, cut thein 
into very thin slices, almost shavings; put some fat into a 
frying-pan ; when very hot, but not burning, throw the slices in, 
not too many at a time, as they will stick together ; move them 
about with a skimmer, to prevent it. When a nice brown colour, 
take them out, and sprinkle some salt over; serve them up 
separate, or over broiled meat. Two inches of fat ought to be 
in the pan. 

299. JMed Cooked Potatoes, '•^'Let the fat in yoor frying* 
pan be about two inches deep ; when smoking hot, add in five 
or six potatoes, cut crossways in thin slices, letting them be 

^ * The best way to pick nettles is to quickly gmsp a haadftili hf 
doing which yon feel no sensation of pain, or by wearing gloves. 



EGOS. 115 

previouBly dried m a doth ; siir with a spoon ; it will take about 
ten minutes to do them crisp ; take them ont, drain and dish 
them, sprinkling a little salt oyer. 

EGGS. 

Tmua, from the earUest records we have, have always been a 
fitvoorite facdf with the exception of a short time in Greece, where 
a few philos(^)her8 endeavoured to make the people refrain fi*om 
eating them, as they stated that they contamed the four elements of 
the worid.* 

They are a nutritious food, whokisome in every way, except when 
boiled too hard; although there are some stomachs which reject 
them. They can be employed in almost every dish with advantage, 
and one weighing two ounces contains nearly the same amount of 
nourishment as an ounce of meat and an ounce of bread; therefore 
when eggs are eighteen fbr a shilling, equal to two pounds four 
oonoes^ t^y are not a very dear artide of food. 

800. To ascertain that they are good and fresh, eandle them, as it is 
called; that is, hold them upright between the thumb and finger of 
the right hand before a candle, and with the left hand shade the eye, 
by which means you will be enabled to detect any spots that may be 
in them ; if a ftw white spots only, they will do for puddings, &c.; if 
a black one, throw it away, as it is perfectly bad. If light and 
Inmsparent, they are fresh. 

801. I^ffi Plain Soiled, — ^This is the most simple of all things 
to cook, and yet is the least attended to ; and I am never surprised. 



* Singular Tdeeu of the Ancients in relation to JJ^^«.-^-Orpheu8, 
I^jrthagaras, and their sectators — good and humane people as ever 
lived — unc^iringly recommended in their discourses to abstain from 
eggs, in order not to destroy a' germ whidi nature had destined for 
the production of chicken. Many allowed themselves to be persuaded, 
and would have believed it an unpardonable crime if they had eaten 
a tiny omelette, or boiled eggs. Many of the most learned philoso- 
phers held eggs in a kind of respect approaching to veneration, 
because they saw in them the emblem of the worid and the four 
dements. The shell, they said, represented the earth; the iidiite. 
Water; the yolk, fire; and air was foimd under the shell. 

The shepherds of Egypt had a singular manner of cooking eggs 
without the aid of fire : they placed them in a sling, whidi they 
tamed so rs^y that t^ frk^fcion of the air heatod them to the 
exflcJt p^M Nipitrsd <fer Mm.—So^^ PantropSteon 

i2 



116 EGGS. 

wlien I am travelling, to find the eggs either too mnch or too little 
iione. They will not take the trouble to distinguish a large one from 
a small one. Whilst some weigh only an ounce and a half, others 
weigh two and a half; but as that is a whim of nature, and the 
servants are so fond of attending to other fi*olics, they will not see 
the difference in this ; but as all cookery books say three minutes, 
and the mistress has told them the same, they are right, and she is 
wrong. From two and a half to four minutes, acoorcUng to size, is 
the time they will take. Ten minutes is sufficient to set an egg 
hard, not thirty, or more, as some persons do by neglect. 

You know, my dear Eloise, how fidgety I am about such trifles. 
I have, therefore, invented a cooking clock, with very distinctly 
marked time ; the hand is pushed back to any time named, and at 
the time required the bell strikes. I mean to adopt it for general 
kitchen use for all dishes^ from an egg to a heavy joint. See Ap* 
pendix. 

302. To Boil Sggs, — ^Put a pint of water into a small pan j 
when boiling, put two eggs in, and boil according to size — as I 
have before said, from two and a half to four minutes. Fresh- 
laid eggs will not take so long, and if only just set, are excellent 
for clearing the voice. 

303. — ^To boil them for toast, they require six minutes ^ take 
them out, throw them in cold water, remove the shell, and cut 
them into slices ; put them on the buttered toast, a littb pepper 
and salt, and serve. These are excellent with a little ketchup 
put on the eggs, then bread-crumbed, salamandered over, and 
serve. 

304 Baked Bggs, — ^Fat half an onnce of butter into a small 
tin pan ; break four eggs in it, keeping the yolks whole, throw 
a little pepper and bits of butter and salt over ; put in the oven, 
or before the fire, till set, and serve. They will take about six 
minutes doing. 

305. Poached Eggs, — Put in a small pan half a pint of 
water, half a teaspoonful of salt, three of vinegar ; when boiling, 
break careMly in the pan two nice eggs, simmer for four 
minutes, or till firm, but not hard ; serve either on toast or fried 
hacon, or ham, or spinach, and on any minced and seasoned 
vegetable. 

306. Mixed JSggs.'-^Biesk four eggs into a frying-pan» in 
wJu'eh you have put two ounces of butter, a Uttlo salt and pepper i 



VABIOUS OMELETTES. 117 

«ct it on the fire, stir round with a wooden spoon very quickly, 
to prevent sticking to the pan ; when all set, serve either on 
toast or dish. Fried bacon cut in dice, a little chopped onions, 
or mushrooms, or a little sprew grass, well boiled, may bo added 
to the above. 

307. Eggs and Bacon, — Cut some bacon very thin, put into 
a frying-pan half an ounce of butter, or fat, lay the bacon in it ; 
when fried on one side, turn over, and break one qq^ on each 
piece ; when the eggs are set, put the slice under the bacon, and 
remove them gently into a dish. Ham may be done the same. 

808. Sggs, Con/vent JF<wAt(W. — Boil four eggs for ten 
minutes, put them in cold water, peel and slice thin one onion, 
put iuto a fiying-pan one ounce of butter ; when melted, add the 
onion, and ijry white, then add a teaspoonful of flour, mix it well, 
add about half a pint of milk, till forming a nice white sauce, 
half a teaspoonful of salt, and a quarter ditto of pepper ; when 
nicely done, add the eggs, cut into six pieces each, crossways ; 
toss them up; when hot through, serve on toast. 

309. Eggs and Satcsages. — Boil four sausages for five 
minutes, when half cold cut them in half lengthways, put a little 
batter or fat in frying-pan, and put the sausages in and fry 
gently, break four eggs into pan, cook gently, and serve. Eaw 
sausages wiU do as well, only keep them whole, and cook slowly. 

Omelettes or Fraise^ 

Where is the man or woman cook but says they know how ta 
make an omelette, and that to perfection? But this is rarely 
the case. It is related of Sarah, the Duchess of Marlborough, that 
no one could cook a firadse, as it was then called, for the great duke 
but herself. 

The great point is, if in an iron pan, it should be very clean and 
free from damp, which sometimes comes out of the iron when placed 
on the fire. The best plan is to put it on the fire, with a little fat, 
and let it get quite hot, or until the fat bums ; remove it, and wipe 
it clean with a dry cloth, and then you will be able to make the 
'Omelette to perfection. 

310. Omelettes, — ^Break four eggs into a basin, add half a tea- 
spoonM of salt and a quarter ditto of pepper, beat tliein up well 
with a fork, put into the frying-pan one ounce and a half of 
butter, lard, or oil, which put on the fire until hot \ then i^o^ in. 



118 YABIOUS OMELETTES* 

the eggs, which keep on mixing quick with a spoon until all i^ 
delicately set; then let them slip to the edge of the pan, laying 
hold hy the handle, and raising it slantways, which will give an 
elongated form to the omelette ; turn in the edges^ let it set a 
moment, and turn it over on to a dish, and serve. 

It ought to be a nice yellow colour, done to a nicety, and 
as light and delicate as possible. It may be served in many 
ways, but some of the following are the most common : — ^two 
tablespoonfuls of milk and an ounce of the crumb of bread cut 
in thin slices, may be added. 

311. Omelettes with JSerhs. — ^Proceed as above, adding a 
teaspoonful of chopped parsley, and half ditto of chopped onions or 
chives, or a little eschalot ; salt and pepper, and semi-fry as above. 

312. Bacon Omelette, — Cut one ounce of bacon into small 
dice, fry in a little fat; when done, add the eggs, and proceed as 
above. 

Ham, if raw, do the same as bacon ; if cooked, cut in dice, put 
in the eggs, and proceed as before. 

313. Omelettef, — Oysters, mussels, periwinkles, or shrimps. 
When the omelette is nearly done, add a few tablespoonfrds of 
either of these sauces in the centse ; turn the omelette, and senre. 
For the above, see Fish Sauces. 

Any cooked vegetables, as peas, sprew, &c &c, may be used 
in omelettes. 

314 Sweet Omelettes,'^'Bes.t four eggs into a basin, add ft 
tablespoonful of milk, a teaspoonfrd of sugar, a pinch of salt, anjL 
beat them well up ; put some nice butter into pan, put in the 
eggs, and fry as before described. Serve with sugar sifted over. 

314l. Preserve Omelettes, — ^When the omelette is nearly done, 
put in the middle some preserve of any kind, turn it over ofi 
plate, and serve with sugar over. 

315. Omelettes with Spirit.-^TheBQ are the above omelettes; 
serve with spirit round them, and set on fire when going to 
table. Bum is generally preferred. 



PASTBT, 11& 



ON PASTRY. 



Osn of the oldest and most current modes of cooking, eitlier by mixing 
oil or butter with the fbur, sweetened, scented, or flavoured, according 
to the fimcy of the cook, is pastry. The Romans had their peculiar 
cakes of paste, the Egyptians had theirs ; in fact, all countries have, 
during the periods of the greatest prosperity, endeavoured to add to 
the number of their luxuries new modes of making paste. With 
pone of these have we, at the present moment, anything to do ; our 
task is to show how paste can be made to suit everybody. 

My excellent Eloise, I think you are wrong, fbr once, in proposing 
that I shoTild g^ve various receipts for sweet pastry. I know you 
possess a sweet tooth, but let those who require first-dass sweet 
dishes, purchase our <* Modem Housewife;" no doubt their pocket is 
equal to their taste ; at any rate, the few I now give will, if pro]^rly 
made by a person of taste, lead them to do others that might vie with 
the most expensive dishes. 

The following receipts will be continually referred to^ therefore 
IQiey ought to be made with care. 

315a. Puff Paste, — ^Put one pound of flour upon your pastry 
Mb, make a hole in the centre, in which put a teaspoonM of 
salt, mix it with cold water into a sofbish flexible paste with the 
right hand, dij it off a little with flour until you have well 
deared the paste from the slab, but do not work it more than 
you can possibly help ; let remain two minutes upon the slab, 
then have a pound of fresh butter, from which you have squeezed 
all the buttermilk in a cloth, bringing it to the same consistency 
as the paste, upon which place it ; press it out flat with the 
hand, then fold over the edges of the paste so as to hide the 
butter, and roll it with the rolling-pin to the thickness of 
half an inch, thus making it about two feet in length ; fold over 
one third, over which again pass the roUing-pin; then fold over 
the other third, thus forming a square, place it with the ends 
top and bottom before you, shaking a little flour both under and 
over, and repeat the rolls and turns twice again as before ; flour 
a baking-sheet, upon which lay it, upon ice, if handy, or in some 
oool place, for half an hour $ then roll twice more, turning it as 
before, place again upon the ioe a quarter of an hour, give it 
two more rolls, making seven in all, and it is ready £Dr usei 
as directed in the following receipts. You must continually 
add enough flour while roUing to prevent your paste sticking to 
theslftb. 



120 PASTBT. 

When I state that upwards of a htmdred different kinds of 
cakes may be made from this paste and the following, I 
am sure it will be quite sufficient to urge u-on every cook the 
necessity of paying every attention to their fabrication, as it will 
well repay for tiie study and trouble. One fourth of this quantify 
may be made. 

316. JSalf-puff Paste, — ^Put on the dresser or table one 
pound of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, two ounces of butter, 
mix all together, then add half a pint of water, or little more ; 
form a sofkish paste, do not work it too much with the hand, or it 
will make it hard and tough ; throw some more flour lightly over 
and under, roll it out with a rolling-pin half an inch thick, about 
a foot long ; then have half a pound of fresh butter equally as 
stiff aa the paste, break it into small pieces, and put it on the 
paste ; throw a little more flour on it, and fold it over in two 
folds, throw aome more flour on the slab, roll it out three or 
four times, letting it rest between each two rolls, and it is then 
ready for use. 

It can be made with lard instead of butter. 
The yolk of an egg, or the juice of half a lemon, added to tlie 
water, makes it lighter. 

dl6A. Half butter and half lard may be used, or if butter is too 
dear, use all lard; if neither, mix well with the flour two 
ounces of dripping, no salt, lay it on the board, and mix half a 
pint of water, till a sofbish paste ; roll it out, then chop a quarter 
of a pound of good beef suet very fine, mix with a quarter of a 
pound of good dripping, free from water or gravy, roll out the 
paste, and add the dripping and suet as preceding receipt. 

317. Plainer Paste, for Meat Pies, — ^Put into a pan half a 
pound of flour, quarter of a pound of dripping, half a teaspoonful 
of salt, rub all well together for about three minutes, add by 
degrees half a pint of water, mix the paste well ; it requires to be 
rather hard; throw some flour on the board, roll, and use it 
instead of puff paste ; three, or even two ounces, of dripping will 
be enough where economy is required, or many children to feed. 

Where the cottager has a small garden, in which he can 
grow a few herbs, which I have already recommended, then 
introduce in the paste a little chopped parsley or eschalot, a very 
small piece of winter savory or thyme, or bayleaf chopped fine ; 
these herbs cost little, and are at once relishing, refreshing, and 
wliolesome. 



PASTBT. 121 

By the same mle the same paste will do for fruit pies, mixed 
with a little grated lemon or orange-peel, with the addition of a 
teaspoonful of sugar. 

318. Short Paste, — ^Put on a slab or board a pound of flour, 
two ounces of pounded sugar, or whitey-brown, six ounces of 
butter, one egg, half a teaspoonful of salt, hdf a pint of water, 
mix sugar and butter well together, add it with the water by 
degrees to the flour, and form a nice paste, but firmer than puff- 
paste; use where described. 

In a farm-house, for a treat, they use cream to make this 
paste. 

. 319. Pudding Paste, -^lai Class Paste. Put on a slab, 
table, board, or basin, one pound of flour, half a pound of 
beef or mutton suet, chopped rather fine — the first is prefer- 
able — ^form a well with your hand in the centre of the flour, add 
the suet, a teaspoonful of salt, half of pepper ; moisten all with 
water, working the flour in by degrees, till it forms a stiff paste ; 
work it well for two minutes, throw a little flour on the slalv 
with the paste on it ; let it remain five minutes, then roll it out 
to any thickness you like. This will be referred to very often, 
therefore pay particular attention to it, and give it an important 
place in the book. For savoury pudding, I sometimes vary the 
flavour, by adding a little chopped parsley, or a little onion, or 
thyme, or mushrooms in it. 

^d Class Paste. Proceed the same way, putting only six 
ounces of suet. 

drd Class Paste. The same, with four ounces. 

4th Class Paste. The same, with four ounces of dripping. 

Lamb, veal, and pork fat, may be used ; but as they do not chop 
80 floury, the paste is heavier. But they can be used for baked 
puddings, which I have introduced at page 102 in that series. 

320. Pruit Tart, French fasMon.-^This requires a mould 
or a tin pan ; it must be well wiped with a cloth, butter it, then 
take the remains of half puff paste, and roll it well so as to deaden 
it, then roll it out a size larger than your mould, and about a 
quarter of an inch thick ; place your mould on a baking-tin, put 
the paste carefully in the mould and shape it well, to obtain all 
the form of the mould, without making a hole in the paste; put a 
piece of paper at the bottom, fill with &uit to the top, and bake 



\22 I'AfiTBY. 

a nice colour ; it will take about half an hour baking mih to 
firuit in season; put plenty of sugar over, according to tl 
acidity of the fruit. 

321. Afioiher. — K you have no mould, make a quarter of 
pound of paste (No. 318), roll it round or oval to your fancy, 
quarter of an inch thick, wet the edge all round about half a 
inch, raise that part, and pinch it with your thumb and finger 
making a border all round, put on a baking-sheet, fill it wit 
one row of fruit if large, two rows if small ; remove the stone 
and sift sugar over according to the acidity of the fruit ; it wi 
take less time, too, than if in a mould : You see what variatio 
can be made with very little trouble or expense. 

322. Small Pastry, — Make a quarter of a pound of half pu 
paste (No. 318), roll it to a thickness of a quarter of an inci 
cut five or six pieces out with the rim of a tumbler ; put eac 
piece in a separate tin, shape it well in forming a nice thin ru 
round the edge with your finger and thumb, three parts fill wit 
either jam, stewed fruit, sweetmeats, custard, pastry, or crean 
bake in a very hot oven for twenty minutes ; dish up in pyn 
mids, and serve. See Index. 

323. Little Fruit Missolettes.'^l also make with the trin 
mings of puff paste the following little cakes : if you have abof 
a quarter of a pound of puff paste left, roll it out very tbii 
about the thickness of half a crown, put half a spoanful of an 
marmalade on it^ about one inclw and a half distance from eac 
other, wet lightly roimd them with a paste-brush, and place 
similar piece of paste over all, take a cutt^ of the size of a onnr 
piece, and press round the part where the marmalade or jam. i 
with the thick part of the cutter, to make the paste stick, the 
eut them out with one a size or two larger, lay them on 
baking-tin, egg over, place in a nice hot oven for tweii<j 
punutes, then sugar over with finely sifted sugar, so as to mak 
it quite white, then put back into ^e oven to glaze, and serve. 

323a. Plain Puff Paste Cal;e.— Make half « pound as N( 
316a ; when done, roll it about a quarter of an inch thick, co 
as many pieces as you can with the cutter, or with the edge c 
a glass, wet a baking sheet, place them on, egg well over, sii 
some sugar on each, bake from ten to twelve minutes, an 
serve. 



^ABTRir. 123 

. 324. Oranga'aud Almond Cakes. — Froooed as above, but lay 
orange marmalade all over a quarter of an incb thick, four ounces 
of almonds, cut into fillets, mixed with two ounces of sugar, and 
the white of two egg added to it ; lay the almonds all over the 
mannaladfi, bake in a moderate oven, and cut in a diamond 
shape, dish up on a napkin in crown or pyramid ; they ought 
to he of a nioe transparent colour. Apple or quince marmaladd 
may be used instead of orange. 

326. ^Preserve Cake, — ^This style of cake is exceedingly 
drnpLe, and admits of great variation. You must make half a 
pou^ of puff paste (No. 316a), take one third of it and 
roll it out several times so as to deaden it, then mould it 
round with your hands to the shape of a ball, roll it out fiat 
to the thickness of a crown, lay it on a baking-sheet, put 
bn it marmalade, or any other preserve, a quarts of an 
inch thick, reserving about one inch all round of paste to 
"fix the cover on, then roll out the remainder of the paste 
to the same shape, it will of course be thicker ; wet the edges 
of the bottom, and lay the cover on it; press it so that it 
•tickB, cut neatly round the edges, and make a mark with the 
back of a knife about a quarter of an inch deep and half an inch 
^part all round ; og^ over, and lightly mark any fanciful design 
\dth the point of a knife on the cover ; bake in a very hot oven 
isa twenty minutes; when nearly done, sprinkle some sugar 
OTer« froit it with a hot shovel, and serve cold. 

826. Small Cream Cake — ^The former one must be made in 
proportion to the dish you intend to serve on, but the foUowing 
is simple, and looks as well : Prepare the paste as before, but 
roll the bottom piece about a foot square, put it on a baking- 
sheet, cover with half an inch of cream (see Index), leaving one 
inoh round the edge ; roll the cover the same size, wet the edges, 
place it over, trim them, mark it down every three inches, and 
then crosswise eveiy inch ; bake in hot oven, sugar over, and 
aalamander. When nearly cold, cut it where you have marked it ; 
thus, a piece twelve inches square will give you twenty-four pieces; 
dish as a crown or pyramid. Twelve pieces make a nice dish for a 
party. They may be made of any puff paste which is left, but 
will not be so light as if made on purpose ; can be cut to any 
&nciful shape you please. Any jam may be substituted for cream. 



124 PASTRY. 

327. Fruit Crusts. — Cut a French penny roll lengthwise in 
four slices, put the yolk of one egg with four spoonfuls of milk, 
mix it in a plate, dip quickly each piece in it, and saut^ in a 
quarter of a pound of hutter which you have previously melted 
in a frying pan ; leave them on the fire until they have obtained 
a nice gold colour on both sides ; put three spoon^s of orange 
^ marmalade in a stewpan, with two glasses of sherry or brandy, 
and place on the fire ; when on the point of boiling, pour over 
the bread, which you have previously put in a plate, and serve 
very hot. Any preserve may be used, also any white wine ; and 
should you have no French rolls, any fancy roll will d.o, or even 
the crumb of common bread. Any kinds of jam may be used. 

Nursery Dumplings. 

Having, the other evening, been invited to a children's party at 
Farmer Laurence's, near Oswestry, and the supper being composed, for 
the most part, of dumplings of various sorts, so as to please the chil- 
dren, I made the following experiment, which proved quite soo- 
cessful. 

328. — Greengages being very plentiful, I went and gathered 
some, and made the following fruit dumplings. I made half a 
pound of paste (No. 319), rolled it out rather thin, then cut a 
piece round with the rim of a tumbler, moistened it, and placed 
a gage in the centre, adding a half teaspoonful of sugar, inclosed 
all in the paste, thoroughly closing the rim, then placed oH 
the baking-sheet, the smooth part uppermost, and baked them 
from ten to twelve minutes, serving them up with sugar. They 
made a beautiM dish. 

Gooseberries, rhubarb, cherries, and mulberries, can all be 
done this way. All kinds of plums can be done the same. 

329. Plain Cheese Cake. — Put half a pint of milk curds, 
well drained, in a basin, add to it an ounce and a half of butter, 
stir perfectly smooth, put in three teaspoonfuls of sugar, one 
ounce of washed currants, one egg, half a pint of milk, and any 
flavour you like, as lemon, orange, &c. &c. Prepare your paste as 
No. 322, fill up the tins with this, bake the same, and serve. 



PASTEY. 125 



NATIONAL FRENCH CAKE OR GALETTE. 

DsABBST Eloise, — ^Thero is one little and perhaps insignificant 
French cake, which I feel cert^n would soon become a favourite in the 
cottage, more particularly amongst its juvenile inhabitants. It is the 
&med galette, the melodramatic food of the gamins, galopins, me- 
chanicB, and semi-artists of France. Show me one of the above-named 
dtizens who has not tasted this irresistible and famed cake, after 
liaving digested the best and most sanguinary melodrama, from the 
•* Courier of Lyons" to the "Corsican Brothers," andfirom the " Pilules 
da Diable" to the " Seven Wonders of the World," after having 
paid their duty to the elegance of the performance and performers, and 
enturely forgetting, as usual, the author, who is supposed to live in his 
tomb, whilst the actors and artists are dead in reality. Setting that 
xm. one aide, observe that the last Seventh Wonder is over, the red- 
blue-green fire no longer required ; the scene-shifter bolts and gets the 
first cat, smoking hot; then, also, rush the audience, full of melodrama 
and anything but food, to the galette-shop, where the Fh-e Cou^C" 
toujowrs (Father Cut-and-come-again) is in full activity, taking the 
money first, and delivering the galette afterwards. Six feet wide 
by ten long is the galette-shop, and very clean, and above one 
hundred feet of galette is sold in less than one hour, at a sou or two 
thecat» 

Such is, even in sammer, the refreshment of the admirers of the 
Boolevard da Crime. 

Like everything which has its origin with the million, it soon aims 
to an aristocracy of feeling, and I was not a little surprised, the last 
time I was in Paris, to see a fashionable crowd round an elegant 
ihopf close to the Gymnase Theatre; on inquiring of a venerable 
citizen, who was anxiously waiting, with ten sous in his hand, the 
motive of such a crowd, he informed me that ho was waiting his 
torn to buy ten sous worth of galette du Gymnase, which he told me 
was the most celebrated in Paris. He passed; and then ladies, 
beaatifully dressed, took their turn; in &ct, the crowd brought to 
my recollection the description of the scene of the bread market at 
Athens (described in Soyer's ** Pantropheon"), where the ladies of 
fiishion or the petites mattresses of ancient Greece used to go to 
select the delidous puff cake, called placites, or the sweet melitutes, 
whose exquisite and perfumed fiour was delicately kneaded with the 
predous honey of Mount Hymettus. At all events, I was determined 
not only to taste, but to procure the receipt if I possibly could ; and 
as yoa know, Eloise, I seldom ful, when determined, the following is 
a copy. 

330. Aristocraiio Galettc-^Work lightly in a basin or on a 
(able one -gouxA of flow with three quarters of a ]^und of froali 



126 PIES. 

butter ; add two eggs, a gill of cream, and a little milk ; if to< 
stiff, then add a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt, two of sugar 
work ail well, to form a good stiff paste, throw some flour on ih 
table, mould the paste round, roll it three quarters of an ind 
thick, and quite round, egg over, score it with a knife ii 
diamonds, or any other shape ; bake for about half an hour !i 
a rather hot oven, sprinkle sugar over and serve. A pound o 
either puff, No. 315Ay or half puff paste, Ko. 316, will make i 
very light galette ; sugar over, and bake as above. 

331. Cottage Galette, — ^Put one pound of flour, a teaspoon 
ful of salt, six ounces of butter; moisten with milk, and baki 
as above, adding a teaspoonful of sugar. 

332. poor Man's Galette. — One pound of flour, a quarter o 
a pound of lard, moisten with milk, or water ; proceed as above 
moisten with a little water on the top, and dredge sugar over 
If no lard, nae dripping. 



JNTRODUCTION TO PIES, BOTH SWEET AND SAVOUEl 

No matter how ridiculous it may appear to Mrs. Smith, or Mzi 
Browu, or Mrs. Any-body-else, do not omit to give room to the fol 
lowing remarks on pies. Never mind how dmple these remaik 
may seem to you, the million will understand them welL fa 
example, where is the little boy or girl in Great Britain who has no 
eaten pies sweet and savoury f From childhood we eat pies — ftaa 
girlhood to boyhood we eat pies — ^from middle age to old age we ea 
pies — in fact, pies in England may be considered as one of our besr 
companions du voyage through life. It is we who leave them behind 
not tbey who leave us ; for our children and grandchildren will be ai 
fond of pie as we liave been ; therefore it is needftil that we shoidt 
learn how to make them, and make them well ! Believe me, I an 
not jesting, but if all the spoilt pies made in London on one s!ngl< 
Sunday were to be exhibited in a row beside a railway line, it wo^ 
take above an hour by special train to pass in review these cuHnarj 
victims ; therefore see the importance of the subject. If we oonk 
only rescue to proper stancUng half a mile of pies and pfe-emst^ ] 
think we should deserve a piece of plate, or at least a piece of one o 
our disciple's pies. 

* How to Make a Pie to Perfection. — ^Tfhen your p^ste ii 
ear»fuIfymade(N6, 310), or short paste (Ko. 318), whieh requii^ 



pisfl. 127 

no more time than doing badly, and your pies and iarta properly 
full — (thk is the laat and most important process in pie and tart 
making) — ^throw a little flour on your paste-board, take about a 
quarter of a pound of your paste, which roll with your hand, say an 
inch in circumference ; moisten the rim of yoiur pie-dish, and fix 
the paste equally on it with your thumb. When you have rolled 
your paste for tiie covering of an equal thickness, in proportion 
to the contents of your pie (half an inch is about correct for the 
above description), fold the cover in two, lay on the half of your 
pie, turn the other half over, press slightly with your thumb 
round the rim, cut neatly the rim of your paste, form rather a 
thick edge, which mark with a knifb about every quarter of an inch 
apart ; mark, holding your knife in a slanting direction, which 
giyes it a neat appearance ; make two small holes on the top ; 
egg over with a paste-brush ; if no egg, use a drop of milk or 
water; the remaining paste may be shaped to fanciM designs 
to ornament the top. For meat pies, notice, that if your 
paste is either too thick or too thin, the covering too narrow or 
too short, and requires pulling one way or the other, to make it 
fit, your pie is sure to be imperfect, the covering no longer 
protecting the contents. It is the same with meat ; and if the 
paste happens to be rather rich, it pulls the rim of the pie to the 
dish, soddens the paste, makes it heav^^ and, therefore, indi- 
gestible as well as unpalatcable. A little practice and common 
sense will remedy all those little housewifery tribulations, and 
probably improve the appearance of this series of dishes. 

883. plain Apple and other Tart — Peel and cut about two 
pounds of apples, sharp ones being the best for the purpose, cut 
each in four pieces, removing the cores, then cut each quarter in 
two or three pieces, according to size ; put half of them in a pie- 
dish, slightly press them, so that they lay compact ; put over 
two ounces of brown sugar, then put in the remaining apples, 
then add another two ounces of sugar, making the apples form a 
kind of dome, the centre being two inches higlior than the 
sides ; add a small wineglassful of water, cover the top over with 
paste No. 318 ; bake in a moderate oven from half to three- 
quarters of an hour. 

All kinds of apples will, of course, make tarts, but if the 
apples be sweetish or too ripe, you need not put in so much 
sugar, but add double the quantity of water $ in this c^ the 



128 SWEET PUDDINGS. 

addition of a little juice of a lemon is an improvement to vary 
the flavour ; use also a little grated or chopped lemon or (urange- 
peel, or a quarter of a teaspoonful of cinnamon, or mixed spioe^ 
or four cloves, 

Green rhubarb and greengages will require a little more 
sugar, adding nothing else but the fruit ; proceed as for ap^e-: 
tart; pink rhubarb does not require pealing; ripe currants^ 
raspberries, and cherries, abo as above; plum, damacm, and 
mulberries the same. 



SWEET PUDDINGS. 

334. Plum Puddin^.'—'Pick. and stone half a pound of 
Malaga raisins, wash and dry the same quantity of currants, 
chop, not too fine, three-quarters of a pound of beef suet, put it 
in a convenient basin, with six ounces of sugar, two ounces of 
mixed candied peel sliced, three ounces of flour, three ditto of 
bread-crumbs, a little grated nutmeg, four eggs, a gill of water, 
or perhaps a little more, to form a nice consistence ; butter a 
mould, put a piece of white paper over the top and round the 
sides, tie it in a cloth, boil for four hours in plenty of water; 
when done, remove the cloth, turn it out of the moidd, take tha^ 
paper off the sides and top, and serve with sweet sauce round ; it 
may al^o be boiled in a cloth. 

The above is only for Christmas. Now for every day. 

Put into a basin one pound of flour, one of chopped suet, half' 
a pound of mixed fruit, a little spice, grated lemon-peel, three 
ounces of sugar, two eggs, half a pint of milk, or enough to 
make it a proper thickness, tie it in a cloth, boil four hours, 
turn it out, and serve with melted butter, or sweet sauce ; bread- 
crumbs instead of flour is good, or half of each. 

335. A Series of Economical Puddings, which can he made 
either in a mould, basin, tart'dish, or tin cake-pcm.'^-'Wf^ 
butter either, fill lightly with any of the following ingredient! : 
—Either stale buns, muffins, crumpets, pastry, white or brown 
bread, sliced and buttered, the remains of sponge-cakes, ma- 
caroons, ratafias, almond cake, gingerbread, biscuit of any 
kind, previously soaked. For a change with any of the above, 
you may intermix with either &esh or dried fruit, or preserves, 
^yen j^lxans, grated cocoa ni^t, &Q, When your mould it Ml of 



SWEET Ain> FRUIT PUDDIK6S. 139 

ei^bM of ihe above, put in a basin a quarter teaspoonful of either 
ginger, a little mixed spice, or cinnamon, if handy, grated 
orange, lemon, or a few drops of any essence you choose ; put in 
three eggs, which beat well, add three gills of milk for every 
quarter mould. When the above is well mixed, fill up nearly 
to the rim. It can be either baked or boiled, or put into 
a saxioepan one-third full of water, with the lid over, and let 
simmer for about one hour. Pass a knife round the inside of 
the basin or mould, turn out your pudding, pour over either 
melted butter with a little sugar, the juice of a lemon or spirit 
sauce. It ought to be the pride of each cottager's wife to find 
out a peculiar and cheap mixture, which would entirely depend 
on the part of the country in which she lives, that would be 
liked by the family, and give it as a treat every Sunday. 

335x. M^it Pt*rfrft«y*.— Such as green gooseberry is best made 
in a basin, the basin to be buttered and lined with the paste, roll- 
ing it round to the thickness of half an inch ; then get a pint of 
gooseberries and three ounces of sugar ; after having made your 
paste, take half the fruit, and lay it at the bottom of your basin, 
then add half your sugar, then put the remainder of the 
gooseberries in and the remainder of the sugar ; on that draw 
your paste to the centre, join the edges well together, put the 
doth over the whole, tying it at the bottom, and boil in plenty 
of water. Fruit puddings, such as apples and rhubarb, should 
be done in this manner ; boil for an hour, take out of the sauce- 
pan, ontie the cloth, turn out on a dish, or let it remain in the 
basin, and serve with sugar over. A thin cover of the paste 
may be rolled round and put over the pudding. 

Bipe cherries, currants, raspberries, greengage, plums, and sucli 
like fruit, will not require so much sugar, or so long boiling. 

836* Curd Milk JPudding^^^VvA, in a basin three eggs, a 
little grated lemon-peel, three ounces of currants, one pint of 
cards, and one pound of bread-crumbs ; boil in a cloth half an 
hour ; turn out and serve. 

337. Cocoa Nut Pudding, ^^GroiB half a nut, add another egg 
to the milk, mix with the above . An ounce of flour may be added. 

338. Plain Rice Pudding, "^^e^ a quarter of a pound of 
rice, put into a stewpan with a pint and a half of milk, three 
OQucca of Imtter, three ounces of su^ar, UmQu-'^d^ ^w&ss^^x*^ 



130 • SWEET AND PRUIT PUDBIXGl 

the rice is tender, add two eggs, previously well beaten, n 
quick, put in pie-dish ; bake half an hour, or till set. 

339. Spotted Dick. — Put three-quarters of a pound of Ho 
Into a basin, half a pound of beef suet, half ditto of curran 
two ounces of sugar, a litUe cinnamon, mix with two eggs ai 
two gills of milk ; boil in either mould or cloth for one bo 
and a half; serve with melted butter, and a little sugar over, 

340. Liffht Dough Dumplings. — Get one pound of doug 
make it into small balls the size of eggs, boil in plenty 
water, and use it for roast or boiled meats, or serve with butt 
and sugar, or with gravy. 

Two ounces of chopped suet added to the above, or to t$; 
the flavour, add a few currants, a little sugar, grated nutmeg, 
lemon-peeL 

341. Apple and Paste Pudding in Basin. — ^Make one pora 
of paste. No. 319, roll it a quarter of an inch thicks lay some in 
bowl, fill it with apples cut in quarters, add two cloves, two otmtf 
of sugar, a little butter, put another piece of paste on the to 
and join the edge nicely ; tie it in a cloth and boil. It can \ 
served up either in the basin or turned out. Bo not open the ti 
to put more sugar in, as it spoils the flavour and makes it heav 

All L*uit puddings may be done the same way. 

342. Suet Pudding. — Put into a basin half a pound 
chopped suet, a pound of flour, two eggs, a teaspoonful of nJ 
quaiier of pepper, nearly half a pint of water ; beat all well t 
gether, put into a cloth as above ; boil one hour and a lialf. 

343. Bread Pudding. — An economical one, when eggs a 
dear. Cut some bread and butter very thin, place it in 
pie-dish as lightly as possible, till three-parts full ; break into 
basin one egg, add two teaspoonfuls of flour, three of brown sugai 
jnix all well together, add to it by degrees a pint of milk, 
little salt ; pour over the bread ; bake in an oven ; it will tal 
about half an hour : this will make a nice size pudding for iai 
or five persons. 

This may be done in twenty different ways, by varying tl 
flavour of the ingredients, as lemon -peel, orange-peel, nutm^ 
cinnamon, or mixed spice, or essences of any kind. 
F(w ohildren^ ekim-milk, ov \\«]l£ milk 8.ud water, datesi < 



trmaa akd vbttit puDDiKoa 131 

Frenoli plumsi or figs, previously soaked and cut, may be added; 
they are excellent for children. 

844 Sroion Bread Puddings, the same way. 

8441. Broken Biscuit Pudding. — ^These may be bought very 
ehaip at a baker's ; they should be soaked in milk and sugar 
the over night, and proceed as above or as No. 385. Stale 
sponge cake may be used with them. 

• 

845. Biee, Macaroni, and Vermicelli Buddings. — ^Wash 
A quarter of a pound of rice, boil till tender, drain it, place it in 
the pie-dish with any kind of fruit, and one ounce of butter, in 
lits ; pour custard No. 361 or 343 over, and bake. Yermicelli 
•nd macaroni previously boiled, may be done the same. 

846. The Same for a Numerous Family, or School. — Two 
povnds of boiled rice, with one pound of chopped suet ; mix in 
a ptn with four eggs, ten teaspoonfuls of flour j moisten with 
In i^ts of water, or skim-milk ; add one pound of sugar and 
ateaapoonfal of salt; bake about one hour. To vary it, a few 
Smyrna rasins may be added. Apples, or any dry fruit, may 
bs luwdf previously soaked as No. 243. 

847* Lemon Ihimjplinffs.'^^hoj^ the rind of one lemon fine, 
aid it to the juice ; chop up half a pound of suet ; mix with half 
a pound of bread crumbs one egg, enough milk or water to make 
a stiff paste i add the lemon ; sweeten to taste ; divide it into five 
cqiud parts, and boil in separate cloths for three-quarters of aa 
liour; aerve with butter and sugar, or a little honey, 

MtJu Apple Dumplings.'-^'Peel and take out the cores of a 
laige apple, cover it with paste No. 318 or 319, boil in a cloth, 
tt plainly bake for thirty minutes. Serve with butter and sugar. 

848. Anot/ter.'-^PTaii into the paste in making it, two ounces 
tf iQgar } a few sultans, or plums, may also be added, and served 
vMi tweet melted butter or spirit sauce over. 

840. A Simple Suet Dumpling, -^Ovlq pound of flour, half a 
^ound of chopped suet, a teaspoonful of salt, quarter ditto of 
pepper I moisten with water imtil a stiff paste: use where 
quired. They may be rolled in small balls, and may be used 
ia aayoary pies, hash, or stews. 



133 SWEET Aim FBTTIT Pt7D]>IKCI& 

350. JRice and Preserve. — ^Boil half a pound of rice as No. ^ 
wlien just done, add one ounce of butter, a tablespoonfiil of cui 
jelly, one ounce of sugar ; mix all well together with a fork, 
serve. Apple marmalade, rhubarb, cherries, currants, and i 
berry jam, orange marmalade, &c., may be used, and an imm 
variation may be made. If it is found too thick, add some n 
Dish up in pyramids, and serve. 

351. Ground Sice Pudding, — ^Boil one pint of milk wi 
little piece of lemon peel ; mix a quarter of a pound of grc 
rice with half a pint of milk, two ounces of sugar, and on 
butter ; add this to the boiling milk ; keep stirring, take i* 
the fire, break in two eggs, one after the other ; keep stirri 
butter a pie-dish, pour in the mixture, and bake until set. ' 
is one of the quickest puddings that can be made. 

352. Snow Pice Cream, — ^Put in a stewpan four omice 
ground rice, two ounces of sugar, a few drops of the esa 
of almonds, or any other essence you choose, with two ounfic 
fresh butter ; add a quart of milk, boil from fifteen to tm 
minutes, till it forms a smooth substance, though not too th 
then pour in a mould previously oiled, and serve when cold» 
will turn out like jelly. 

If no mould, put either in cups or a pie-dish. The rice 
better be done a little too much, than under. 

353. Sandy Pudding. — Remove the inside of three len 
into a basin, take out the pips, add half a pound of sugar, ' 
well ; roll a long strip of paste, as for rolly-polly pudding, 
the mixture over with a spoon; roll and boil the saim 
rolly-polly pudding. 

Orange can be done the same way, with the addition q£ 
juice of half a lemon. 

354. Young England Pudding. — ^Make some paste, No. i 
roll and lay it in a basin ; then roll about seven or eight very 1 
pieces the size of the bason; then get a pound of treacle, or gol 
83rrup, and pour a little on the paste, squeezing a little let 
juice, and chop up the rind of a lemon, and sprinkle a little o^ 
add the other pieces of paste, and then the treacle and 1» 
until ML, Boil in a doth for one hour, and serve with 8< 

treacle over* 



SWEET AND FBUIT PUDDIKOS. 133 

I think I Temevaiber telling yon, my dear Eloise, of the pleasant 
iixne I passed at Boulogne two summers since, and of our little trip 
ho the Yallee Heureuso, or Happy Valley, near Marquise, a charming 
Village near Boulogne. In the course of our ramble on that plea- 
sant day, we all gathered a lot of blackberries — ^but such berries aa 
tre do not meet with in England; they are a luscious, ripe fruit. 
Ilieae we took home with us to the hotel, and the next day boiled 
ISbexD. up with a lot of sugar, and made them into a pudding like the 
above, nidng the fruit and syrup instead ot treacle. It was very much 
Jiked at dimier, which was a table d*h6te, and the colour somewhat 
imembling TJnde Tom's face, it was at once christened with that 
same, and is now known as Vncle TonCs pudding. A little port 
wine sauce may be used, and also bhick currants, boiled to a syrup. 

855. Isinglasa and Gelatine for Jellies. — Dissolve two 
ounces of isinglass in half a pint of water ; boil and reduce to 
luHf, pass through a cloth into a basin ; use wliere required. 

Gelatine may be used the same way. 
The stock of two calf's feet, reduced to half a pint^ may ho 
used instead of isinglass ; it will make it cheaper. 
The stock of cow-heel can also be used. 

856. Bohemian Cream. — Prepare four ounces of any fruit, 
as Ko. 384, which pass through a sieve, and one ounce and a 
half of melted isinglass to hall a pint of fruit ; mix it well, 
whip up a pint of cream, and add the fruit and isinglass gra« 
dually to it ; put it in a mould ; let it set on ice or in any cool 
place, and when ready, dip the mould into warm water, and turn 
Dot 

357. White Creamj-^VxA, into a bason a quarter of a pound 
4f sugar, a gill of pale brandy, and one and a half ounce of 
«lliher melted isinglass, gelatine, or calf's foot ; stir it well, and 
«dd ft pint of whipped cream ; proceed as before. Bum, noyeau, 
enra^a, or other liquors or flavours, may be added. When 
labors are used, add less sugar^ If you have any ice, use only 
an ounce of either. 

• 

358. Calfs'foot Jelly, — ^It is possible, even in the poorest 
family, that jelly may be recommended in cases of illness, and 
they may be at a distance from any place where it could be 
purchased. I think it right to give the following receipt : — * 

Cut two calTs feet and put them in three quarts of water ; 
when boiling, remove to the side of the fire, and let it simmer 
'fiom three to four hours, keeping it skimmed; pass it through a 



184 8WSKC AND FBUrr PUDDOfOfi. 

sieve into a bafion, where it must remain until quite liaid ; tim 
remove all the fat, &c., from the top. Put into a pan half a 
poond of white sugar crashed, the juice of four lemons, the rind 
of one, the whites and shells of five eggs, two glasses of white wine 
and a pint and a half of water ; stir till the sugar is melted, then 
add the jelly; place it on the fire and stir well until boiling | 
then pass it through a flannel bag until dear. Put in a 
mould with or without fresh firuit. Set in ice or any oool 
place, till firm. Brandy, rum, or any liqueurs, may be addad^ 
or serve plain. 

359. Orange Jelly. — Procure five oranges and one lemon; 
take the rind off two of the oranges, and half of the lemon« and 
remove the pith, put them in a bason, and squeeze the juice ni 
the fruit into it ; then put a quarter of a pound of sugar into a 
stewpan, with half a pint of water, and set it to boil until it 
becomes a syrup, when take it off, and add the juice and rind 
of the fruits; cover the stewpan, and place it again on the 
fire ; as soon as boiling commences, skim well, and add a gill 
of water by degrees, which will assist its clarification ; let it boil 
another minute, whenadd an ounce and a half of isinglasSydissolved 
as directed (No. 355), pass it through a jelly-bag, or fine sieve; add 
a few drops of prepared cochineal to give an orange tint, and then - 
fill a mould and place it on ice ; turn out as before. This jel^ 
does not require to look very clear. 

360. Lemon Jelly is made the same way, only using di 
lemons and the rind of one. 

To those who wish to save trouble, I would recommend fhem td 
buy their jellies ready made. They may be purchased at ifanosl 
every Italian warehouse in town and country, in bottles of aboot a 
pint and a quart each, so prepared as to keep fresh and good ftr 
years. Many of my friends use these Bottled JelUet^ of whicb I 
find the following are the hest kinds : Noyeau, punch, orange, lemci^ 
Madeira, and plain calf 's-foot. They are all very excellent and use* 
frd in their way. 

Deab Eloise, — ^While on the subject of jellies and confisctioniiy, 
I feel I should be wanting in duty to the public were I to refrain 
from drawing their earnest attention to the recent disdosuree in the 
Lancet, whidi so fearlessly exposed the poisonous adulterations foand 
in the various articles of preserves and confectionary submitted to 



8WXET AND FBUIT PUDDIKGS. 13ff 

OTwnhirtion. Thero is not a doubt these disdosures have had a most 
Iwfieflflial efifiBct in checking the existence of the ix^jurious practices 
prefioiifllj adhered toj and I may now look forward with confidence 
to the day when not only sach delicacies, but the whole of the food 
we eat, may be enjoyed without the slightest fear of injury to out 
health. Adulteration will then become the exception, instead o( as 
ik hitherto has been, the nUe, 

Hie fbUowing paragraph^ copied fh>m the Lancet of the 4th 
Vebruary, 1854, appears to me not an inapt illustration of my 
lonarkif displaying^ as it does, the difference between pure and 
impure preserves, accompanied by the gratifying intelligence of the 
posribilxty of procuring them in a wholesome state.* 

361. JPtain Custard, — ^Boil a pint. of milk, in which place 
two onnoes of sugar, the thin peel of half a lemon ; break in a 
basin four eggs, beat them well with a fork, then pour in the 
milk by degrees, not too hot ; mix it well, pass it through a 
eullender or sieve, fill cups with it, which place in a stew- 
pan, on the fire, which contains one inch of water ; leave them 
f» about twelve minutes, or till set, which is easily perceived. 

8d2. Coffee, Cocoa, or Chocolate Custard. — ^Make some very 
rtrOD^ cofifeei-beat the eggs as above ; put in a pan half a pint 



# «« The praotioe of imparting to bottled and preserved fruits and 
ffgetables a bright green colour, by means of a poisonous salt of 
copper, still prevails extensively. Nothing can be more permcious 
than this practice ; It has, however, received a considerable check by 
the publication of the reports of the Analytical Sanitary Commission 
in this subject. One ten, we know, that of Messrs. Crosse and 
Blackwell, whose establishment is the most extensive of any engaged 
ia this branch of trade, has gone to a very considerable expense in 
fitting up a large silver vessel, as well as several steam pans, which 
latter are lined with a thick coating of glass enamel, for the prepara* 
MoQ of their various manufiujturesi thus taking every precaution 
to guard against the contact with copper. The ^fierence in tha 
sppearanoe of fruits and vegetables which are artificially coloured, 
and Hiote which have not had any colouring matter added, it 
very great*-so striking, indeed, that a practised eye can readily 
distinguish the one teom the other. The fi^rmer are of a bright 
and almost metallic-green hue, much deeper than that of the 
zeoent fruit, while the latter are of a pale yellowish-green colour, 
varying with the nature of the fruit or vegetable preserved. As for 
the difference in the wholesomeneas of the two articles, there can be 
but a single opinion, while, in our estimation, the appearance in the 
imooknxred sample is much the most pleasing and natural.'^ 



136 SWEET AKD FRUIT l^UDDIKOB. 

of milk and half a pint of made coffee, with two ounces of sngaj^ 
then add the eggs, pass through a sieve, and proceed as above. 

Chocolate and cocoa the same, only omitting the lemon-peat 
in all three. 

363. Custard in Pie Dish. — ^Fut a border of puff parts 
round the dish, fill with the above^ and bake twenty minutoi in 
a slow oven. Eat whilst cold. 

364. Custard for Puddings.-^Uhe above wiH he the foundft-! 
tion for any flavour that may be introduced; as orange flower 
or peel, noyeau, <&c. &c. With this mixture an innumera|)le 
number of puddings can be made, that in country places, or even, 
towns, will be found as economical an article of food, when. 
eggs are cheap, as can be partaken of, and particularly appre- 
ciated by the rising generation. 

365. Farm Custard.'—'PTit in a small saucepan the ybOa 
of four eggs, four teaspoonfuls of sugar, the peel of half a lemooy 
or a quarter of that grated, a grain of salt ; mix all well, then add 
half a pint of milk ; set the whole on the fire, stir continually with: 
a wooden spoon till it gets thick and smooth ; but do not let it 
boil, or it will curd ; then put it in a basin to cool, stirring now 
and then ; if handy, pass it through a sieve, it gives it a nice 
appearance, and serve either in glasses or cups, with any fresh' 
or stewed fruit, orange peel, or any essence, brandy, or nxnif ' 
may be used for flavouring. 

When at our friend Lindley's house in Yorkshire, I took a gill of 
cream, whipped it, and mixed it with the custard when cold. It 
made it very white and delicate. The custard may be wluppedwlule 
being made. 

Ton wish to know what I did with the white of the eggs, and per* 
fectly right that you should. Well, I put them in a bashi wi& a 
very little bit of salt, then with a whisk I beat them iSil firm and as 
white as snow, then I add four teaspoonfuls of pounded sugar, mix 
it well; I put a pint of milk to boU in a very dean semiS, €t 
frying-pan, and, with the aid of a spoon, I scoop off the white in the 
shape of eggs, dropping them in the milk, letting them remain till 
done, turning them occasionally ; take them out, and serve when 
cold, pouring some of the custard over ; the remaining mUk was used 
for puddings. 

Even now, Eloise, you do not seem satisfied, so I send you a 
ifeceipt for a souffle. It seems to you, no doubt, very mmple ; let me 
teU you, however, that it is so oiUy in appearance; the great aecret 



SWEET AND FRUIT PUDDINGS, 137 

H ia properly beating the white of the eggs ; therefore, if yon fiedl in 
your sttempt, do not blame me^ the details of the recdpt being quite 



366. JSgg JPudding, or Omelette SottfflS, — ^Break four eggs ; 
enefolly separate the white from the yolk, put both in different 
kuios ; add to the yolk three teaspoonfuls of powdered sugar 
and one of flour, a little grated orange or lemon peel, or any other 
flayour yon prefer ; stir the whole for five minutes, then beat 
&e white of the eggs with a whisk; when firm, mix lightly with. 
file yolk till forming a nice, smooth^ light, and rather firm sub- 
stance ; then put it either in a tin pan, cake pan, or a common 
pan, wbicb can stand the heat of the oven, buttering it well. 

If in a tin dish, shape it in pyramids with a knife, put it in 
a moderate oven from ten to twelve minutes, sugar over and 
serve. When nearly done, an incision or two with the point of a 
knife may be made through the thin crust ; it will make it lighter. 
Ton may also put two ounces of butter in the frying-pan, and 
when liot put in your mixture, and toss it round three or four 
timet ; pat it on a dish, bake as above. Ten minutes will do it. 

2&I. How to varif Bread or any Custard Puddings. — Have 
lome sHoes of bread cut thin and buttered ; lay them in the dish. 
imgly ; pour in the custard, Ko. 365, and bake gently, or place 
in. a pan with a little water in it. 

These may be altered thus :— 

By throwing in some currants^ 

dr bruised ratafia cakes. 

Or sultana rasins. 

Or Malaga ditto. 

Or Frendi prunes. 

Or dried cherries. 

.Or stewed rhubarb. 

Or apple ; or, in &ct, any fruit according to fancy. 

Well boiled rice, macaroni, vermicelli, &c., may be used ; the 
costard always being poured over, and sifted sugar on the top. 

New style, as a second-class mixture : two eggs, two table- 
spoonfrds of flour, and milk enough to make it thickish. 

368. Gooseberry Fool. — ^Put in a pan a quart of green 
gooseberries, with a wineglass of water and half a pound of 
sugar ; stew on a slow fire for twenty minutes, keep stirring ; put 
in bai^, and whip a ]^t of cream ; when the fruit is cold ; mix 



138 erVTEBT AND FBXJIT PUDDINGS* 

with the creami and serve in cups or hollow dish, or ynSk 
pastry round it. 

Apple may be done the same way. 

Currants and raspberries the same. 

Bed rhubarb the same. 

Cherries may be done the same, having previously been 
stoned. If too much syrup, add a little isinglass. 

369. Orange Salad. — Choose six oranges not too laise^ 
cut them in thin slices crossways, remove the pips, lay them nat 
in a dish, cover over with a quarter of a pound of sugar, a gifl 
of brandy, rum, or Madeira ; stir them, and serve. 

370. Strawberry Salad.'^A. large pottle of ripe strawbemeB, 
picked and put into a basin with two tablespooniuk of ttigar, A 
pinch of powdered cinnamon, a gill of brandy ; stir gently, iiid 
serve. 

Currants and raspberries the tame. 

Als all fruits and vegetables are destined ftit the tlie of tm^ 
these should be partaken of by all olasses when in Mascaii •• 
they are invaluable for health. 

371. Velvet Cream. — A veiy excellent dish is made thus :•-• 
Put in a dessert glass a thick layer of strawberry jam or VOf 
other preserve, and place over it about a pint of hot molf 
cream mixture, No. 352; when cold, the top may be oniip 
mented with fresh or preserved fruit. 

372. Rice Croquettes, — Make some of the above mixture reiy 
stiff; when cold, roll it, or serve it in any shape you like. Egg 
and bread-crumb, and fry quickly in hot £*t in a frying-pan* 
Sugar over. 

373. Lemon JPudding. — ^Put in a basin a quarter of & poctBi 
of flour, same of sugar, same of bread crumbs and chopped sne^ 
the juice of one good-sized lemon, and the peel grated, two 
eggs, and enough milk to make it the consistency of porridge^ 
boil in a basin for one hour ; serve with or without sauce. 

374. Dripping Pvdding, — Three eggs and their weight in 
dripping, two tablespoonfuls of sifted sugar; beat them up until 
a cream, add a few currants, and the flour gradually, until li 
foimA a stiff pasi«; bake m cups previously, buttered. 



SWEET AKD FBUTE PUDDINGS. 139 

• 9f6* PaUUo Pudding. — One pound of potatoes boiled and well 
maihed, a quarter of a pound of butter stirred in whilst warm, 
two ounces of sugar, the rind of half a lemon chopped fine, with 
the juioe, a teaoupful of milk s butter a tin, put in the mixtm'e, 
and bake in a moderate oven for half an hour ; two eggs may be 
added. 

876. Dough Pudding with Apples. — Cut four apples into 
dioe, put over two ounces of sugar, half a pound of chopped suet, 
Oipe pound of flour, and half a pint of water; bake in a pie dish 
fir a mould, or boil in a basin, as a pudding ; sweet sauce may 
be poured over. 

877. First Class Yorhshire JPudding, — ^Beat up two eggs 
in a basin, add to them three good tablespoonfbls of flour, with 
a pint of milk by degrees, and a little salt ; butter the pan, bake 
half an hour, or bake under the meat, cut it in four, turn it» 
and when set on both sides it is done. A tin dish one inch and 
a half deep and eight inches wide, is the most suitable for such 
proportion. 

878. Second Class.-^'Put in a basin four tablespoonfuls of 
flour, add a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt and a little pepper, 
))eat one egg with a pint oi^ milk, pour over on the flour by 
jlsgrees till smooth, and proceed as above. 

• 879. Third Class.--^J£ no eggs, chop two ounces of beef suet 
fine, add a little soda, mix as above, and bake the same. A 
little chopped parsley, chives, or aromatic herbs, may be intro* 
duced in either of the above. These receipts are good with 
■ny kind of roasted or baked meat, or poultry. To facilitate 
the turning, when one side is brown and the pudding well set, 
cut it into several pieces, turning with a knife or a fork. If 
preferred served whole, put a plate on the top of the baking tiui 
ten it over, and slip it back; let it remain in the tin ten 
minutes longer, and serve either round or separate. 

880. JPancakes.'^'FvLtihe pan 6n the flre with a tablespoonM 
of lard, let it melt, pour off all that is not wanted, then pour in 
three tablespoonfuls of the fl)llowing batter:—- 

Break four eggs in a basin, add four small tablespoonftds of 
flour, two teaspoonfuls pf sugar, a little salt; beat all well, mixing 
lyy degrees half a pint of milk, a little more or less, depending 
on the size of the eggs and the quality of the flour. Itmust&rm 



140 BTEWED FRUITS, 

A rather thick batter. A little ginger, cinnamon, or any other 
flavour you fancy. Two eggs only may be used, but in tiis casd 
nse a little more flour and milk. When set, and one side 
brownish, lay hold of the frying-pan at the extremity of the 
handle, give it a sudden but slight jerk upwards, and the cake 
will turn over on the other side ; which, when brown, dish up 
with sifted sugar over. Serve with lemon. Chopped apples may 
be added to the batter; currants ^d eultanas can be mixed 
with it. 

381. Apple Fritters. — ^Peel and slice crossways, a quarter of 
an inch thick, some apples, remove the core, and dip them one after 
the other in the following batter : Put in a basin about two ounces 
of flour, a little salt, two teaspoonfuls of oil, and the yolk of an 
eg^j moistened by degrees with water, stirring all the while 
with a spoon, till forming a smooth consistency, to the thickness 
of cream, then beat the white of the egg till firm, mixing it 
with the batter; it is then ready to fiy; use any fruit as fritters. 
If no oil, use an ounce of butter previously melted^ adding it to 
the batter before the white of the e^g is used. 

Apple Fritters Simplified, — ^When peeled and cut, put 
Bugar over, add a little lemon juice or spirits, let the pieces 
soak two hours, then dip each piece in flour, and have ready a 
frying-pan, with at least two inches deep of fat. When YixA, 
put the apples in one at a time, turn over with a slice as they 
are doing, and serve with sugar over. All kinds of ripe peais 
may be done in the same way. 

382. ColUge Fudding, — Put half a pound of crumbs into a 
basin, a quarter of a pound of chopped suet, the same of 
eurrants, two eggs, two ounces of sugar, a little nutmeg and salti 
and a little milk; mix all together, make round balls, egg-cramb« 
and fry in hot fat till a nice colour ; dish up with sugar over f a 
glass of brandy or rum in it is exceedingly good. 

383. Buttered Apples. — ^Peel, slice, and core one poimd of 
apples, put into a frying-pan about two ounces of butter, add 
the apple, and cover over with two ounces of pounded sugar; 
put them in the oven until done. A very nice dish for children. 
When done, they may be dished up on a nice crisp piece of 
toast with sugar over. 

384k /Slewed Fruiisr^These, at those periods of the year 



STEWED PRXnTS. 141 

when Nature has ordained that tbcy shall come to perfection 
without artificial means, are as wholesome an article of food as 
can be partaken of, as they cool the blood and are perfectly 
harmless. 

They are easily done, and are cheap. In the following 
Teceipts, which I will mark as lessons, one pound is the quantity 
named. 

Apples. Ist Lesson. — ^Peel one pound of apples, cut in slices, 
remove the core, put into a stewpan with three or four ounces 
of white pounded sugar, one ounce of butter, two tablespoonfiils 
of water ; stir gently on a slow fire until tender ; use hot or cold 
when required. Brown sugar may be used. 

27id Lesson, — ^To the above add the juice of half a lemon or 
of one orange, and a little of the peel of either, or a small pieod 
of cinnamon, or in powder. 

Ited JSkuharl, 1st Lesson. — Cut one pound of rhubarb one 
inch long, put into a pan with two tablespoonfuls of water and 
three ounces of white powdered sugar ; stir on a slow fire till 
tender. 

2nd Lesson. — Stew with brown sugar : green rhubarb requires 
peeling. Stir more if old. 

3r(f Lesson. — Cut a po\md of the common rhubarb, put in an 
iron pot with four ounces of brown sugar ; stir well with a 
spoon until it is quite thick and adheres to it ; take it out to 
cooL It can be used, spread on bread, for tea or supper. 

Oreen Gooseberries, 1st Lesson. '^' One pound of goose- 
1>eiries with six ounces of sugar ; boil with two tablespoonfuls 
of water, turning them well ; stir, and keep until cold. Or by 
mixing cream with it, it will make gooseberry fool. 

Greengages, Orleans plums, egg plums, cherries, currants, red, 
trhite, and black, raspberries, mulberries, and strawberries, may 
all be done the same way. 

The following is another very nice way, and may be used for 
several fruits in winter. Cherries being the most difficult, we 
will name that in particular. All the others can be done 
like it. 

Cut the stalk half off of one pound of cherries^ igixjii mta ^x^i3X 



143 8WEET AND FRUIT OAKES. 

with eight ounces of sugar ; set on the stove for a few minuiefl^ 
then add half a pound of red currants, and the same of rasp* 
berries; stew altogether until getting tender and the juice 
becomes quite thick ; put by until cold. It may be used with 
pastry or with bread. 

Siberian crabs, cranberries, damsons, and all other ixmiM, 
the same way. 

All the above make a very nice Hght and quick dish for 
supper done as follows :-«- 

Cut some nice slices of bread half an inch thick, dip them 
in milk which is sweetened, or sprinkle sugar over, then dip it 
into some batter of milk and flour, and fry nicely, or put some 
butter in a tin dish, bread over, and put in an oven. When 
quite hot and nearly hard, put some of the above fruit over, and 
ierve* 

385. Plum Cake, — ^Weigh one pound and a half of flour, 
one of currants, well washed, one of butter, one of sugar, nine 
eggs ; put into a good-sized basin the butter, which well work, 
with clean hands, until it is like a cream ; in about ten minutes 
it is ready ; then add a little sugar and the eggs by degrees, and 
then the flour, then add the currants and line a cake-hoop with 
paper, put the mixture in, set it in a warm place for one hour, 
and bake it for one hour in a slow oven. Half or even a 
quarter of the quantity may be made. 

386. Common Sort-^Vxit in a basin half a pound of butter, 
work it well, add half a pound of sugar and four eggs, beat all 
well together, then add half a pint of milk, two poimds of flour, 
a quarter of a pound of caraway-seeds or half a pound of 
plums ; put it in a hoop or deep pie-dish, and bake two hours. 

To ascertain if the cake is done, take a piece of dry wood 
or skewer, pass it into the cake, and if it comes out dry, it is 
done. 

387. Ch'ound Mice Cake. — Break five eggs into a stewpan, 
which place in another, containing hot water, whip the eggs lor 
ten minutes till very light, then mix in by degrees half a pound 
of ground rice, six ounces of powdered sugar, beat it well; aqy 
flavour may be introduced; pour into buttered pan and bake 

Judfaa hour^ 



SWEET AKD FBUIT CAKES. 143 

887a. Vastry Cream, — ^Break two eggs in a pan, add two 
taUespoonfuls of flour, a pinch of salt ; moisten with a pint and 
a half of milk \ set on the fire, boil twenty minutes, or till it 
fivms thickish smooth consistency; then add two ounces of 
pounded sugar, one of butter , put in either a little orange flower 
water, or a drop of any essence you choose, grated orange or 
lemon peeL One dozen of bruised ratafias will be an improve- 
ment, put in at the same time as the sugar. Previous to using, 
add to the oream one ounce of butter, which you have previously 
made very hot. This may be used for all kinds of pastry, in- 
■tead of jam. 

888. CUnger Cb^e.-^Half a pound of sugar, half a pound of 
butter, one ounce and a half of ground ginger, six eggs, beat 
well, stirring one pound and a half of flour, and add as much 
milk, a little warm, as will make a nice stiff dough for bread ; 
bake in pan ; it will take two hours, 

888a. JRoch Cakes, — Put in a basin two pounds of flour, 
half of sugar, half currants, half of butter, three eggs, beat well, 
make them into balls or rock, the size of eggs ; bake on baking 
aheets; a little milk may be added. 

889. Common Oingerbread. — ^Put on a slab or table a 
pound of flour, make a ring of it ; put half a pint of treacle 
in, mix well together till forming a stiff paste, working it well. 
Put some flour in a basin, to which add your dough ; it will 
keep thus lor seven or eight weeks. When you want to use it, 
put in any quantity of ground ginger you require, according 
to taste ; mix well, roll thin, cut any size you like ; pieces about 
the size of a crown are best; then put them on a baking- 
sheet, bake for a few minutes, till crisp. These cakes will keep 
a long while if put in an air-tight case. An ounce of butter 
jnay be used to every pound of paste. 

They are excellent in assisting digestion after dinner. 

390. nice Cake, — ^Wash one pound of rice, put it in a stew- 
pan, Mrith a pint of water, put it on the fire ; when the rice is 
well soaked add a quart of milk, quarter of a pound of butter, 
grated lemon-peel or a little nutmeg, or a piece of cinnamon, 
boil till thick, then add two eggs, well beat) 9. UtiU ^dt^^:ctsLv 



144 StTEET AKD FRUIT CAKES. 

quarter of a pound of sugar ; place all in a greased pan or tin 
breadpan ; bake one hour^ and serve with sugar or jam over. 

391. The same a Cheaper Way, — Add to one pound of rice, 
when boiled, two ounces of cbopped suet, a spoonful of flour, a 
quart of skim milk, some brown sugar or treacle ; bake in laargt 
pan ; eat cold ; and fruit of any kind may be mixed with it. 

392. Apple Cake. — ^Butter a pie-dish near a quarter of an 
inch thick, throw in a large quantity of bread-crumbs, as much 
as will stick, when pressed well, on the butter ; then have sonie 
apples already stewed down and sweetened, as No 384, of which 
nearly fill the dish, put one ounce of butter in bits, cover 
over with bread-crumbs, also half an inch thick, put into hot 
oven ; when done, pass a knife round and turn it out, sugar over, 
and glaze with a red-hot shoveL 

If used hot, a little rum put roxmd it and lighted is very nice. 

393. Spice Cake. — ^To one pound and a half of dough add 
half a pound of butter, half of currants, half of sugar, half an 
ounce of spice, beat all well together, and bake in a mould one 
hour. 

394. Little Milk Cake for JBreakfast.-'Vl&ce on a table or 
slab one pound of flour, half a teaspoonful of salt, two of sugar, 
three of fresh yeast, or a very small piece of German, two 
ounces of butter and one egg ; have some new milk, pour in a 
gill, mix all together, adding more milk to form a nice dough, 
then put some flour in a cloth, put the dough in, and lay it ia a 
warm place ; let it rise for about two hours, cut it in pieces the 
size of eggs, roll them even, and mark the top with a sharp knife; 
egg over and bake quick ; serve hot or cold. 

A Common Sort — Only yeast, salt, milk, and batter, and 
proceed as before. 

Cottage Sort, — ^To one pound of flour, two ounces of lanL or 
dripping, the yeast and skim milk. 

Sweet Sort. — ^To one pound of flour tliree teaspoonful<i of 
yeast, two ounces of lard or dripping, quarter of a pound of 
sugar, a few currants or caraway seeds : bake quick when well 
rlifeu. 



8WEET AND FRUIT CAKES, 145 

396. JEccteg Cake, — To a quarter of a pound of currants half 
a teaspoonfol of grated nutmeg, some lemon-peel chopped fine, 
one ounce of sugar, roll out about a quarter of a pound of puff 
paste, No. 315, roll it round the size of a small plate, and nearly 
an inch thick, then put a tablespoonful of the mixture over 
it, roll another piece of paste over it, and hake a nice delicate 
colour. 

396. Bread Apple Cake, — ^Well butter a tart-dish of any size, 
about three inches deep, cut some slices of bread quarter of an 
mch thick, which lay in it so that the bottom and sides are 
quite covered, stew some apple nearly dry, as No. 384, put them 
on the bread until the dish is full, cover over with more butter 
and bread, and bake in a hot oven for half an hour ; remove it 
from the dish ; turn over, and dish it up with sugar on the top. 

397. Tipsy Cake. — Cut a small Savoy cake in slices, put 
them into a basin, and pour some white wine and a little rum 
over ; let soak for a few hours, put into a dish, and serve with 
some custard round. It may ha decorated with a few blanched 
almonds or whipt cream and fruit. 

These may be made with small sponge cakes, by soaking 
them in some white wine, in which currant-jelly has been 
diBsolved ; take twelve of them stale, which will cost sixpence 
•oaik them well, put them in a dish, cover them with jam or 
jelly, and thus make four layers, decorating the top with cut 
preserved fruit ; dish with custard or whipt cream round. 

898. Plain Cake. — Mix two pounds of dry flour with 
four ounces of clean dripping melted in a pint of milk, three 
tablespoonfuls of yeast, and two well beaten eggs, mix well 
together, and set aside in a warm place to rise, then knead well 
and make into cakes ; flour a tin, and place it in the oven in a 
tin ; oarraway-seeds or currants may be added, sugar over. 

399. Soda Cake, — Half a pound of good clean dripping, one 
pound of flour, half a pound of sugar, not quite half an ounce of 
soda ; beat the dripping well with the sifted sugar, and beat the 
floor in with the soda ; bake in tins in a slow oven for one hour 
and a hal£ 

Another, — Half a pound of dripping, half a pound of moist 
sugar, half a pound of currants, one pound of fl.<^>\Y) ^ ^k^'^ 

L 



146 BBEAD. 

spoonful of carbonate of soda, three eggs, well beaten nu 
mixed with half a pint of warm milk ; then mix altogether an 
bake in a tin lined with writing paper. 

400. Foreign JBiscuiis, — ^A quarter of a pound of hxtiJini 
mix with a pound of flour, dissolve a quarter of a poiuid c 
sugar in half a pint of warm new milk, pour graduallj to th 
flour, dissolve half a tcaspoonful of salt of tartar in hadf a tea 
pupful of cold water, add it to the flour, and make it into a stii 
paste, roll out, and cut in small cakes with a wineglass ; bak9 U 
a quick oven immediately. 

401. Chround Bice Cake, — Six ounces of ground rice, six oniue 
of flour, four eggs, half a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound o 
clean dripping, a small piece of volatile salts; beat aD well togeiJier 
bake one hour in a pan. A few currants may be added, anc 
also a little milk, if required. 

SERIES OF BREAD. 

402. The bread which I strongly recommend fbr the labomlH 
class, or those who shall get their bread "by the sweat of their hnm} 
is that made from unbolted flour, or whole meal. It is only thi 
efieminate and delicate that should partake of fine flour. The bm 
of bread is increased one fifth, and the price lowered, between fhi 
difierence of the price of bran as fiour, or as fodder for cattle. 

Licbig says, " The separation of the bran from the flour by boItiflK 
is a matter of luxury, and injurious rather than beuefidal as regaiw 
the nutritive power of the bread." 

It is only in more modern times the nfbed flour has been knevi 
and used, and has been followed by the poor, to imitate the Inxmy d 
the wealthy, at the expense of their health. Certain it i% uqf 
where whole meal is used as bread, the population have better £^ 
tive organs than where it is not. 

In Ireland, amongst the poor, it is almost a disgrace to ea§ brovi 
bread. 'Dvunwj; the year of the fkmine, being at Malahide, I saWt 
female, without shoes or stockings, go into a baker's shop, purdww 
Iwo loaves, one white, end the other brown ; the white she CMtifld 
in her hand, the brown she hid under her ev^lasting doak — fav 
pride would not allow it to be seen. These ignorant pec^le should In 
told that there is hardly a fiunily in England but what have on fbdr 
table for breakfast and tea a loaf of each kind of bread, white 9 
brown. 

If the dough is made and well raised in the pan, if in small qosn* 
titles, as for buns, &c throw some fiour on the table, p^ the doo^ 



f, and ToU it idvdral tixnoB to iorm it solid; then itliape tlie loaf or 
lim; let them rise twenty minutes in a warm place, and buko 
tooordiog to size. 

403. Cottage JBread, No, 1.— Put into a large pan fourteen 
pofuids of flour^ add to one quart of warm water a quarter of a 

eit of brewer's yeast, or two ounces of German yeast, make a 
le iji the flour, and pour in the water and the yeast ; stir it 
well np with a wooden spoon till it forms a thickish paate, throw 
a little flour over, and leave it in a warm room ; in about one 
hour or seventy-flve minutes it will have risen and burst 
throogh the covering of flour, then add more warm water and 
firar teaspooofulB of salt, until it forms, when kneaded, a rather 
•tiff dough ; it cannot be too much worked ; then let it remain 

E0red with a cloth for about another hour, or an hour and a 
f ; 4he time; as well as the quantity of water it takes, depends 
gnaXLj on tiie quality of the flour. Cold water may be used in 
ffJifnTOfftt 

fhen divide the dough into five pieces; if the flour is old 
9iffi good they will weigh four pounds each, and take about one 
wqr and forty minutes to bake; the oven should be well 
Mated, and sufficiently large to bake tbe quantity of dough you 
make at one time ; if the oven is small, make only half the 
fOADtlly ; the door should be well closed. If the bottom of the 
oven ia too hot, a tile placed on it will prevent too much bottom 
fnrt; or a baking sheet, kept half an inch above the bottom of 
ttt oven, will have the same efiect. 

In aome places they bake in tins, in others in brovm pans ; if 
«0, tko dough may be made softer, and allowed to rise a little 
loDger, though I do not approve of bread being too light, as it in 
\h& tasteless and unprofitable. 

40^ Milk Bread and Solli.-^Weigh a pound of flour, put 
jH qathe table-dresser, or in a pan, make a hole in the centre, put 
tn aqnartar of an ounce of German yeast, one egg, two ounces of 
Wtter, quarter of a teaspoonM of salt, one of sugar, have half 
•pint of warm milk, put a little in, mix all well together, then 
|A bj degrees the flour, and also the milk ; it may not take the 
klf pint, but depends on the flour ; stir all well, work it for a 
J^ minutes, until it is a stiff dough ; take a little flour and rub 
off the paste which attaches to the side of the basin, roll it 
jcODod, throw some flour on the bottom of the basin, put in the 
ioa^ keep it iQ i^ warm place for two hours, or till it has 

?'8 



148 BBEAB, 

• 

nicely risen, then throw some flour on the board, cut the paste 
off in the size of eggs, flatten them with the hand, make them 
long and pointed, and make a line in the centre with the back of 
the knife, egg overidth a paste-brush, let them rise half. an 
hour longer in a warm place, bake twenty minutes in rather a 
sharp oven. They ought to be of a nice yellow colour, and 
light. If the yeast is doubtful, add a little more ; brown yeast 
is preferable. 

Another plainer, No. 2.— Put in the centre of the flour two 
ounces of lard, or good dripping, then add an ounce of Grerman 
yeast, a little salt, a little tepid water, with which disMdye 
both yeast and lard ; mix it with the flour. 

405. Plainer still, No, 3. — ^Put a quarter of an oonott f£ 
yeast, salt, sugar as above, add half a pint of tepid wstor, 
proceed as above; sugar may be omitted; or make a single loaf 
of it in a tin pan, or roll it into a lump ; make a cross at the top 
with a sharp knife, egg over, or nulk and water ; bake in la&er 
sharp oven, which is easily ascertained by placing the hand on it^ 
if you cannot endure it for a quarter of a minute it is flt for 
bread, but if it bums it is too hot. 

406. The brown bread, or that made from whole meal* is to0 ^ 
in the same way ; the sponge will take a little longer to rise. ,, \ 

Milk used in these breads will occasion it to go a litfip 
further, and keep it moist longer ; one pint is sufficient, and jta 
get one pound more bread ; it also improves bad flour, from "& 
addition of gluten in the milk. A little potato starch or 
starch will improve bad flour, and occasion it to rise better. 

The following are two variations for these breads: 
seven pounds of flour into a pan, mix with three pints of wma 
milk or water, an ounce of yeast, one ounce of salt, mix wd 
with the flour, set it in a warm place for three hours, form into 
Small loves and bake at once. 

407. Bice Bread, — To fourteen pounds of dough add «« 
pound of groimd rice) boiled in milk until in pulp and edd^ 
bake in small loaves. 

408. Brown Bye Bread. — To three pounds of floor add ooe 
pound of rye flour, the proportions of yeast, salt and water as 
above, and may be mixed all at once ; it ivill ts^^ a little kngOT 

to hake. 



I 



n 



A SERIES 69 SAUCES. 149 

4D9. €hod Keeping Bread. — ^Mix one qaarter of a pound of 
light mashed potatoes with four pounds of flour, made into 
fei^ for bread, is very good; this kind of bread will keep 
Skmt for a long time. 



SAUCES. 

410. Melted JBuUer.^^'FTom whence is this eztraorcUnary word 
deriyed ? what learned pundit could have given it birth ? — a word 
which recalls so many pleasing moments, when the palate has been 
graUAed by its peculiar fragrance and taste. It is, no doubt, an im- 
portation at the time of the Conquest, but although having been 
domesticated amongst us for near 800 years, we are very far behind 
ear allies on the other side of the channel in its numerous adaptations 
'tmA applications. The great diplomatist, Talleyrand, used to say, 
that England had 120 religions, but only one sauce, and that 
aiBlted butter. He was very near the trutb, but, at the same time, 
hb should have told how to engraft 119 sauces to the original 
one, the same as the various sects he mentions, have been offshoots 
tfom the prinutive one which was first established In this country. 

I will now endeavour to prevent his words being any longer a 
ti^ipsm, and will point out how that one sauce— melted butter (French 
jfoifer loifce)— can be multiplied (id infinitum, according to the ability 
iif the artist. 

' I Brast first premise that my melted butter is not for the table of 
Am wealthy, but the simple artizan. It is not to consist of two- 
tiiirds butter and one-third cream^ warmed gradually with a box 
pfRlQOy but of two ounces of butter, and two ounces of fiour, half a 
Iwuvoonful of salt, a quarter that of pepper, mixed together with 
a.l|poon, put into a quart pan, with a pint of cold water; place 
B on the fire, and stir continually, take it out when it begins to 
ilmmer, then add one more ounce of butter, stir till melted, and 
it is ready for use, or as the foundation of the following various 



, . This melted butter is fit to serve at the best tables, by adding 
ftoree ounces of butter ; take, as a g^ide, that the back of the spoon, 
in being removed, should always be covered with the butter or sauce; 
Hiis is essential, as I find that fiour varies very much. If you let 
ife boil, it will immediately get thinner. 

'-Mmted Butter, No, 2. — The following is also very good as the 
Ibundation of sauces — it is not so ridi, and will keep longer : Ona 



• I 

otiiiGe of btiticr, one and a linlf of floor, a little more nll^ p 
and a gill more water; simmer, and serve. 

These melted butters may be improved sVigbtly hj adding 1 
tablespoonfiil of vinegar. 

With half of the above quantity make the following sauces, 
ingredient to be mixed in the saucepan. Stir and serve when i 
boiling. 

411. SERIES OP SAUCES. 

Anchovy Sauce, — ^Add two tablestMxmdful of essence of and: 
and mix welL 

Harvey's SoMce.^-^Hlie same of Harvey*^ sanee. 

8oyei*8 Eeliah. — ^The same o^ Soyer's relish. 

Soyef^s Muttard Sauce. — One teaspoonftil of Sqyer's mnstat 

ChiU Pmeffar.^Thred teaspoonfifbl of Chili vinegar. 

JSffff Sauce, — Two hard boiled eggs cat in dice and addecL 

Cojpei' Sauce. — Two tablespoonsfbl of chopped capers adck 
bo capers, use pickled gherkins. 

Ihinell Sauce.—The same of chopped fenneL 

Parsley and Butter. — ^The same of chopped parsl^. 

Mild Onion Sauce, — Boil four onions in salt and water, take 
l»ut, chop them up, and add them to the above with a little moe 
and a teaspoonful of sugar, and a little milk or cteam. 

Sage and Onion, — ^To the above, a tablespoonful of cbopj^ 
eage and a little more pepper. 

White Sauce, — ^The yolk of one egg, and mix with milk or < 
instead of water. A blade of mace is an improvement when Ik 
and stir. 

Celery Sauce, — ^Boil in a half-pint of white gravy, if hanc^, I 
water, one fine head of celery, cut in one inch lengths and 
washed, — ^it will take about twenty minutes, — add it to the n 
butter. The yolk of an egg beat up and stirred in is an improvei 
it may require a little more salt. Serve with poultry. 

Cktcuniber Sauce, — Cut up two cucumbers lengthways, remoi 
ieeds, cut them in one inch pieces, boil them in a gill of white { 
with salt and pepper, add it to the melted butter; aimmes 
^!erve. Sugar is an improvement. 

Vegetable Marrow, when young, the same as above. 

412. Brown Sauce, — Put a quarter of a pound of bntier and 
tmnces of £0x0: in a aattcepan, fcnd cet it on a slow fire; keep itl 



A SBBIES dF SATJOES. 151 

• 

fbt ten mldutei, or Mil light brown, then take it off and let it get 
hitstriy cold, then pour over Anfficient brown stock, Ko. 2, to make 
it a nice thickness, or like thinnish melted batter; then boil for half 
an hour, skim, strain it into a basin, and nse where and when 
required. If you have this sauce by you, use It instead of melted 
Imtter for brown sauces. To make it darker^ a little colouring may 
be added. 

413. White Sauce^'^'Pnt into a convenient sized stew pan fbur 
Dfonces of butter, and eight ounces of flour ; set oh fire, keep stirring 
U above; take the pan j&om the fire and stir until nedrly cool, then 
pour on sufficient white stock. No. 1, until it is a nice consistency ; 
put it on the fire and boil for a quarter of an hour; keep stirring 
continually; pass it through a sieve, and keep for use. 

Half a pint of boiled milk will make it look whiter. 

This sauce, when handy, is the fotmdation of hU white sauces, for 
celery, caulifiower, mushroom, cucumber, vegetable marrow, Ac., or 
any white sauces, instead of using melted butter. Observe, Eloise, 
that I only send you these two preceding sauces in the event of a 
litUe dumer partyi ts they belong to a higher dass of cookety. 

FISH SAUCES. 

Shrimp SaUee. — ^Pick half a pint of shrimps, and boil the skins 
in a gill of water for fifteen minutes; strain the water, and add IL 
with the flesh of tbe shrinips, to half a pint of melted butter, ana 
iilnmer for a fbw minutes. Add a little anchovy. 

Lobster Sauce, — G6t the raW eggs, or the inside spawn of the 
lobster, put them on a plate with a bit of butter, and with the blade 
<of a knite mash them, or pound them in a mortar ; this, when put 
faio the hot melted butter, will make it red. Cut the lobster up 
In small pieces, and add the soft part from the belly with it to the 
■ JMlted butter (a middling sized lobster will make a quart of sauce). 
JL little cayenne or Harvey^s sauce is relishing. Boil and serve. 

Crab and Cra$fi$h, — ^The same as lobster. 

Mussel and Oyster, — Open twelve oysters or thirty-six mussels, 
lieardi and blanch them lightly in their own liquor; take them out, 
xeduce the liquor, and add them to the half-pint of melted butter; 
.when boiling add a little cayenne, and one ounce of butter. A drop 
of cream or boiling milk wiU improve it. Or, when, your oysters ai*e 
raw in the pan, add half a gill of milk and a few peppercorns; blanch 
lightly, mix half a teaspoonfhl of flour with half an ounce of butter. 

Sot in bit by bit, stir round, boil) and serve* A little cayenne .will 
BpTove it> also a drop of cream. 



152 ▲ 8EBIES OF SAUCES. 

Cod'IAver Sauce, — Half a ponnd of cod-liver, previondj bcMled, 
cat in large dice, with a little anchovy sauce, to half a pint of melted 
batter. Mix the same as No. 410. 

Fickle Sauce, — One tablespoonful of chopped pickle or piccaSify, 
one ditto of the vinegar from it ; add to half a pint of meltei batter, 
and boil for a few minates. Good for fish, meat, and poultry* 

414. Apple Sauce, — ^Peel six good-sized apples, cut in four jneoes, 
cut out the core, slice them fine, put into a stew pan with one oonoe 
of brown sugar and a ^ of water; stew till in pulp, and serve with 
roast pork, goose, and duck. 

415. Mird Sauce, — Chop three tablespoonfuls of green mint, pat 
it into a basin with three of brown sugar, half a teaspoonful of nit, 
a quarter of pepper, and half a pint of vinegar. Use it with roast 
lamb ; also good with cold meat and poultry. 

416. Horseradish Sauce, — Grate two tablespoonfuls of hone- 
radish, which put into a basin ; add to it one teaspoonful of mustard, 
one of salt, a quarter of pepper, one of sugar, two tablespocmiuls of 
vinegar; moisten with a little n^ilk or cream until of a thickisfa 
appearance. Serve with rumpsteak, cold meat, &c. 

417. TTine and Spirit Sauce. — Add to half a pint of melted 
butter, without salt, two teaspoonfuls of white or brown sugar, a 
glass of brandy, or rum, or sherry, or any liquors. 

418. Motel Keepet^s Sauce, — ^Mix in half a pint of melted butter 
one tablespoonful of hotel keeper's butter, Ko. 426; warm it and 
Berve. 

419. A White Sauce for hoiled Fowls, &c. &c. — If for two fdmU, 
add to one pint of melted butter (No. 410) two yolks of raw eggs, 
which mix well with a gill of cream, or milk, and when the melted 
butter is near boiling mix in and stir very quick, do not let it b(nl; 
add a little grated nutmeg and stir in a little more butter, season 
with a little more white pepper, and the juice of a lemon, and poor 
over your poultry. This is not an every day sauoe, but is exceedingly 
nse^ to know. 

A little chopped parsley, ham, or tongue sprinkled over the fowl 
after the sauce is on, gives it a pleasing appearance. 

Or parsley chopped fine, or capers, gherkins, mushrooms, or tongue 
cut into cUce, or green peas, may be added to this sauce to dbange it. 

420. A sharp Brovm Sauce for broiled Fowls and Meat. — ^Put a 
tablespoonful of chopped onions into a stew pan with one of Chili 
vinegar, one of common vinegar, one of colouring, three of water^ 



X SERIES OF SAUCES. 153 

two of mxuhroom ketchups two of Harve/s sance, one of anchovy, 
and a pint of melted butter, No. 2 ; let it simmer until it becomes 
lather thick to adhere to the back of the spoon, add half a teaspoon- 
M of sugar. This is excellent to almost all kinds of broiled meats^ 
and gives a nice relish to stews, fish, poultry, &c. 

421. The same simjplified, — ^Put into a pan one tablespoonful of 
diopped onion, three spoonfuls of vinegar, one of colouring, six of 
-water, three of either Harvey's sauce, or ketchup, a little pepper and 
salt, a pnt of melted butter, boil till thickish; serve for the same as 
above. 

422. Onion Sauce. — Peel and cut six onions m slices; put in a 
stew pan, with two ounces of butter, a teaspoonful of salt, one of 
«ugar, a half one of pepper; place on a slow fire to simmer till in a 
pulp, stirring them now and then to prevent them getting brown, 
then add one tablespoonful of flour, a pint of milk, and boil till a 
proper thickness, which should be a little thicker than melted butter; 
jerve with mutton cutlets, chops, boiled rabbits, or fowl; by not 
passing it, it will do for roast mutton and boiled rabbit as onion 
jauce. 

423. Caper Sauce, — ^Put twelve tablespoonfuls of melted butter 
&to a stew pan, place it on the fire, and when on the point of boiling, 
add one ounce of fresh butter and one tablespoonful ot capers; shake 
the stew pan round over the fire until the butter is melted, add a 
little pepper and salt, and serve where directed* 

424. Cream Sauce. — ^Put two yolks of eggs in the bottom of a 
ttew pan, with the juice of a lemon, a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt, 
a little white pepper, and a quarter of a pound of hard fresh butter ; 
place the stew pan over a moderate fire, and commence stirring with 
a wooden iipoon, (taking it from the fire now and then when getthig 
too hot,) until the butter has gradually melted and thickened with 
the eggs — (great care must be exercised, for if it should become too 
hob the eggs would curdle, and render the sauce useless ;) then add 
balf a pint of melted butter ; stir altogether over the fire, without 
permitting it to Ixnl. This sauce may be served with any description 
of b(nled fish, poultry, meat, or vegetables. 

425. Mustard Sauce. — Put in a stew pan fi^ur tablespoonfuls ot 
ehopped onions (No. 449), with half an otmce of butter, put on the 
fire and stir till it gets rather hot, add half a teaspoonfhl of fiour, 
mixed well, also half a pint of milk or broth (No. 1) ; let the 
whole boil ten minutes, season with half a teaspoonful of salt, a 
quarter that of pepper, a little sugar, and two teaspoonfuls of 
Trench or English mustard; when it boils it is ready. 



1^ A SfiSnSd OP flAUCEfl. 

4)251. Black Butt0r.^Tnt two ounces of salt btittdf in k tt6# 
pan, set it on the fire; when it gets hot and brown add about 
twenty parsley leares, half a teaspoonfal of salt, a quarter of that of 
pepper, and two tablespoonfhls of vinegar, let the whole boil on« 
minute and pour over any article suitable for this kind of sanoe* 

4258. Curfy Saucc^^VeA and cut tWo middling nzed tMons 
In slices, one apple cut in dice, and two ounces of baocn; pat tfaebi 
into an iron stew pan, with one ounce of butter or &t, put on tin 
fire, stir round for five or six minutes^ then add three teaspoonfuls d 
fiour, one of curry powder, mixed well ; moisten with a pint of wSSk, 
half a teaspoonfal of salt, and one of sugar; boil till rather thids^ 
and setve over any article suitable fi>r its use. 

If passed through a sieve, put it back into the stew pan, tot it tx^ 
<>ne minute, and skim it, will be a very great imprdrenMcti. Cbttf 
paste may be us^ Bfoth or water may be used. 

425a A simpler Manner* — Apples and onions may both be me^ 
as also a pint of melted butter (No. 410). In this no floiir nead bi 
used. 

425e. Bread 8auee,^^Vut in a stew pan four tablespoonfdli of 
bread crumbs^ fl quarter of one of salt, half that of pepper^ tan peeper 
ooms, peel a small onion, cut in four, add a pint of milk» half aft 
ounce of butter; boil for ten minutes^ when it ought to turn odl a 
thickish sauce. 

Important Ohservati(m»*^lt will be seen that in the above aalictl 
there is hardly any but the three first which may not be made 
with the produce of the cottage garden, or <^ those artides irlndi 
are in daily use^ and if these direcfcions are followed, many a b<m 
rivant in London would often envy the cookiog of the cottage, a* lb 
would contain the freshness and aroma of fresh gathered vegeto^lei. 

426. Jlofel Keeper^s Butter, — ^This is v^ simple and good, and 
will keep potted for a long time. It is excellent with all broiled 
meats. 

Put on a plate a quarter of a pound of fresh butter, a quarter cf a 
apoonful of salt, a quarter <Htto of pepper, two of chopped parsley 
the juice of a middle sized lemon (if no lemon, use vinegar) | a IxU^ 
grated nutmeg may be added. 

427. Anchovtf JButier, — ^To a quarl;er of a pound of butter, two 
tablespoonfuls of anchovy sauce. 



A Muss 01* Uluho. ISS 



ON SALADS. 

What is more refresliiDg than salads when your appetite eeems to 
Imve desertedi you, or even after a capacious (Hnuer — ^the mcCj fresli, 
jpeeOf aiid cnsp iialad, fiill of life and healtli, wMch seems to invigo- 
zftto tiie pAlUte and dispose the masticating powers to a much lotjge^ 
distaiiOn. The herhaceous plants which exist fit for fbod for man, 
lire more numerous than may be imagined, and when we reflect holt 
many of these, for want of knowledge, are allowed to rot and decom- 
pose in the fields and gardens, we ought, without loss of time, to make 
ourselves acquainted with their different natures and forms, and vary 
our food as the season changes. 

Although nature has provided all these different herbs and plants 
u food for man at various periods of the year, and perhaps at one 
period more abundant than another, when there are so many ready 
to asnst in purifying and cleansing the blood, yet it would be 
advisable to grow some at other seasons, in order that the health 
inay be properly nourished. 

However, at what period of the year or at what time, these may 
be partaken of, the following dressing ia the one I should always 
veoommend. 

In my description of salads, I have advised and described the use 
cf them as plainly dressed, such as they are in many parts of Europe, 
tbat perhaps many of our readers will want to know how the sauce ii 
Blade which is often used with the salad herbs, or such as the Italian 
ioont used' to make some years since, by which he made a fortune in 
^beising salads for the tables of the aristocracy. It is as follows :*^ 

PLAIN COSS SALAD. 

428. Coss LeHuee.'^Ts^ two large lettuces, remore the faded 
lessee and the coarse green ones, then cut the green top off, pull 
each leaf off separate, cut it lengthways, and then in four or six 
pieces; proceed thus until finished. This is better without 
washing. Having cut it all up put it into a bowl ; sprinkle over 
with yottr finger a small teaspoonful of salt, half one of pepper, 
three of oil, and two of English vinegar, or one of French ; with 
the spoon and fork turn the salad lightly in the bowl till well 
mixed ; the less it is handled the better ; a teaspoonful of chopped 
chervil and one of tarragon is an immense improvement. 

The abova seaioxuDg is tiioiigh for a quarter of a pound of 
lettuce* 



156 A SERIES OF SALADS. 

429. Cahhage Lettu<ie. — ^Proceed the same as above, poll off 
the oater leaves and throw them away, take off the others one \sf 
one, and cut in two, put them in a pan with cold water, then 
drain them in a cloth, by shaking it to and fro violently mill 
one hand, and extract all the water, put them into a bowl^ and 
season and dress as above. 

To vary them, two hard boiled eggs, cut in quarters, xoay be 
added ; a little eschalot, a few chives, or young onions. 

To improve the appearance of these saJads, when on the tabUi, 
before being used, the flower of the najsturtium may be inter- 
mixed with taste and care, with a little cut beetroot and slices of 
radish. These are refreshing to the sight on a table or side- 
board at dinner ; slices of cucimiber may be also introduced. 

430. Endive. — This ought to be nicely blanched and erisp, 
and is the most wholesome of all salads. Take two, cut away 
the root, remove the dark green leaves, and pick off all the rest, 
wash and drain well, dress as before ; a few chives is an improve- 
ment. 

431. French Fashion, — ^Put in one clove of garlic, or rub a 
piece of crust of bread slightly with it, or the salad-bowl, mix 
the salad in the bowl as before; if rubbed slightly on the bread 
mix it with it. If properly contrived, it gives a flavour, which 
no one can detect. Tarragon or chervil may be used in these 
f^lads. 

432. Marsh Mallow.-^-ThQ roots of these should be removed, 
as likewise the faded leaves ; dress as for lettuce No. 428 ; eggd 
and beetroot may be introduced in this, being almost a winter 
salad. 

Dandelion, or dent-de-lion, should not remain long in water* 
as they will get too bitter ; dress them as endive. 
Cow salad the same way. 
Watercresses the same, with a little cucumber and celery. 

433. Mtistard and Cress, — ^These, if eaten alone, make aa 
excellent salad ; they should be quickly washed and used, dressed 
as lettuce. A little tarragon or chervil, or a few chives, may be 
used. 

434. Salad Sauce, — Boil one egg hard, when cold remove the 
yolk, put it into a hasin, hruise it to a pulp With a spoon,— do not 
use iron, prefer wood, — then add a raw yolk and a teaspoonftil of 



A SERIES OP SALADS^ 157 

iBOTi A small ieaspoonfal of salt, a quarter of pepper, then add half a 
noanful of Tinegar ; stir it round, pour over a tablespoonful of oil by 
degreeSy keep stirring, then a little more vinegar, two more of oil, 
mtil eight teaspoonfuls of oil and three of vinegar are used; season 
with half a teaspoonful of chopped onions, two of parsley, half of 
tarragon and chervil, a pinch of cayenne and six teaspoonfuls of melted 
hotter cold. The white of the egg may he chopped up and added. 
it will keep for some time if properly corked, and may be used in 
proportion with any of the above salads ; but still I must say I prefer 
Um simplicity and skill of the Italian count's in preference to this, 
attbough this is very palatable. A gill of whipped cream is good in it. 

436. Vegetable for Salads, — Beetroot, onions, potatoes, 
celery, cucumbers, lentils, haricots, succory, or barbe-de-capucin, 
winter cress, bumet, tansey, marigold, peas, ^French beans, 
radish, cauliflower ; all the above may be used judiciously in salad, 
if properly seasoned, according to the following directions : — 

435a. JEaricoi and Lentil Salad. — To a pint of well-boiled 
haricots, add a teaspoonful of salt, quarter of pepper, one of 
chopped onions, two of vinegar, four of oil, two of chopped 
parsley, stir round, and it is ready ; lentils are done the same. 
A little cold meat, cut in thin slices, may be added as a variety. 

436. Beetroot Salad with Onions, — ^Boil four onions in the 
•kin till tender, also a piece of beetroot ; let both get cold ; 
remove the skin, cut them in slices, put them in a plate, one slice 
on the edge of the other alternately ; put into a small basin half 
a. teaspoonful of salt, a quarter of pepper, one of good vinegar, 
three of oil, mix them well j pour over when ready to serve. 

Celery f Young Onions, and JRadishes may be used in salad 
with the above cbessing, adding a teaspoonful of mustard. 

Cucumbers, — Cut in thin slices on a plate, with salt, pepper, 
dl, and vinegar in proportion to the above directions. 

Oreen French Beans. — ^When cold put into a bowl, with som« 
tarragon, chervil, and chopped chives, dressed as before. 

Brussels Sprouts, the same way. 

437. Potatoes. — If any remaining, cut them into thin slices, 
and season as before. A few haricots, or cold meat, or a 
chopped gherkin, may be added. 



158 ▲ BBBISS OV 8iIiiP9i 

438. Meca and Poultry. -^Jf tWe are any of tjifi^iboy^ "ktlk 
and yon require a relishing dish, and not hav^g mj IrefOi 
salad herbs, proceed as for ihe other salads, using a little chr^pprf 
parsley, onions, or pickles. Some cucomber or oeleiy may be 
used. The meat or poultry should be cut small. 

439. Fish Salad.-^A, very nice and elegant diah may be 
made with all kinds of cold fish, and some kinds of shell-fish; 
but the following way of dressing is for a small Lobster Salad, 
and will do for all fish salads : Have the bowl half filled wii)i 
any kind of salad herb you like, either endive or lettuce, Aa. 
Then break a lobster in two, open the tail, extract t)i6 mesfi ^ 
one piece, break the claws, cut the meat of both in small a&fSBf 
about a quarter of an inch thick, arrange these tagtefijly 04 
the saUd, take out all the soft part &om the belly, mix it ia a 
bason with a teaspoonful of salt, half of pepper, ibur of vintttf 1 
four of oil; stir it well together, and pour on the salad; then 
cover it with two hard eggs, cut in slices, a few slices of enoom- 
ber, and, to vary, a few capers and some fillets of anchovy; stir 
lightly, and serve, or use salad sauce, ^0. 434. 

K for a dinner, ornament it with some flowers oi the nat? 
turtium and marigold. 

440. Crab Salad, — ^The same as the lobster, 

B 3mains of cold cod, fried soles, halibut, brill, turbot, stur- 
geon cut as lobster, plaice, &c., may be used in the same way- 

Ma ch^be Eloise, — In the foregoing receipts you will perceive 
that I have used each sakid herb separate, only mixing them with 
the condiments or with vegetable firait. I have a strong objedaon 
to the ahnost diabolical mixture of tour or five different sorts of 
salad in one bowl, and then chopping them as fine as possible; the 
fi^hness as well as the flavour of eadi is destroyed; they agree 
about as well together as would brandy and soda water nuxed witi) 
gin and gingerbeer, for each salad herb has its own particular flavour, 
and the condiments, which are onions, chives, parsley, chervil, tSfia- 
gon, celery, eschalot, garlic, cucumber, beetroot, &c. kc. are only to 
give it piquancy like the oil and vinegar, salt, and pepper. 

Mustard and cress and water cresses may be considered as a slight 
condiment, but should be used accordingly. It is remarkable that 
though the inhabitants of this country were for so many centuries 
(from the nature of the climate) a salad-eating people, yet they se^ 
the least to know how to season thein. Until the int^uctiou of 



BELISHM 159 

i3i6 potato^ in 1660, and wbieh wfts first eaten as a sweetmeat, stewed 
in nek wine imd sugar, the various salads were in oommon use on 
itfb tables in Britain, of which country most of the, plants are 
indigenoQS* 

RELISHES. 

441. Serring in TFliwifcy.-- Well wast and dean a red 
lierring, wipe it dry and place it in a pie-dish, having cut off 
the head, and split it in two up the back ; put a gill or two of 
wbisky over the lierring, according to size, hold it on one side 
of the dish, so that it is covered with the spirit, set it alighti 
and when it goes out the fish is done. 

ibi2. Devilled Bones.-^Tsike the bones of any remaining 
joint or poultiy, which has still some meat on, which cut across 
idighlly, and then make a mixture of mustard, ^alt, cayenne, and 
pepper, and one teaspoonM of mushroom ketchup to two of 
mnstard ; rub the bones well with this, and broil rather brownish* 



MUSHROOMS, OB THE PEABL OF THE FIELDS. 

I HSBE send you, Eloise, a most sumptuous relish. There is one 
cUsh which the Devonshire cottager can procure and enjoy better 
than even the most wealthy person. It is the mushroom. After 
having plucked them, perhaps on the road home for his breakfast, 
broiled them over a nice bright fire, seasoned with a little pepper and 
salt, and a small bit of butter placed inside of them ; the flavour is 
then pure and the aroma beautiful, but by accident I discovered a new 
and excellent way to cook them. Being in Devonsliire, at the end of 
September, and walking across the fields before breakfast to ^ small 
fknnhouse, I found three very fine mushrooms, which I thought 
would be a treat, but on arriving at the house I found it had no 
oven, a bad gricUron, and a smoky coal fire. Necessity, they say. 
Is the mother of Invention, I immediately applied to our grand and 
nniversal mamma, how I should dress my precious mushrooms, when 
a j^tle whisper came to my ear, and the following was the result. 

443. I first cut two good slices of bread, half an inch thick, large 
enough to cover the bottom of a plate, toasted them, and spread 
some Devonshire cream over the toast. I removed aU the earthy 
part from the mushroom, and laid them gently on the toast, head 
downwards, slightly sprinkled them with salt and pepper, and placed 
' in each a little of the clotted cream ; I then put a tumbler over each 
and placed them on a stand before the fire, and kept turning them so 
as to prevent the glass breakings and in ten to fifteen minutes Uxe glass 



160 BELI6HES.. 

was filled with vapour, which is the essence of the mushroom ; when ifc 
is taken up, do not remove the glass for a few minutes, by wMch 
time the vapour will have become condensed and gone into the bread, 
but when it is, the aroma is so powerful as to pervade the whole 
apartment. 

The sight, when the glass is removed, is most inviting, its whiteness 
rivals the everlasting snows of Mont Blanc, and the taste is worthy oE 
IJucullus. Vitellius would never have dined without it ; Apicius would 
never have gone to Greece to seek for crawfish; and had be only 
half the fortune lefb when he committed suicide, he would have pre- 
ferred to have left proud Some and retire to some villa or cottage to 
enjoy such an enticing dish. 

Therefore, modem gourmets, never fancy that you have tasted 
mushrooms until you have tried this simple and new discovery. 
Remember the month — the end of September or the beginning of 
October. 

As Devonshire cream is not to be obtained everywhere, use butter, 
or boil some milk till reduced to cream, with a little salt, pepper, 
and one clove ; when warm put in an ounce of butter, mixed with a 
little flour, stir round, put the mushroom on the toast with this sauce, 
cover with a basin, and place in the oven for half an hour. In this 
way all kinds of mushrooms will be excellent. They may be put into 
baking pans : cover with a tumbler as above, and bake in oven. 

444. Welsh Rahhit — ^Toast a round of bread from a quartern 
loaf; put about four ounces of cheese into a small saucepan or 
pipkin with a teaspoonful of mustard, a little pepper and salt^ 
and a wineglass of ale ; break the cheese small, set it on the fire, 
and stir until it is melted, when pour over the toast, and serve 
quickly. 

2nd. — Toast a round of bread, and place on it two pieces of 
cheese, single Gloucester, a quarter of an inch thick ; place it 
before the fire, and as the cheese melts, spread it over the bread 
with a knife, also a little cayenne and mustard. 

Zrd. — Take a penny French roll, cut off a thin slice from one 
end, and take oat some of the crumb and place it in the oven. Melt 
the cheese as above, and pour it into the roll. It is very 
good for a journey, or a sportsman, and can be eaten cold. 

4ith, or Irish Rahhit. — Toast a round of bread; chop up four 
ounces of cheese, a small piece of butter, one gherkin, some 
mustard, pepper, and salt, until it is quite a paste ; spread it 



CULINARY MISCELLANEOra. 161 

over the toast, and plaoe them in tho oven for five minutes, and 
lervo hot. 

^iS^^-^Mussels may be eaten plain. Put a quart of them 
in a pan, after being well washed, with some onions cut in 
slices, also a little parsley ; put them on a sharp fire for ten 
minutes, when they will all open; then remove the board 
and black part, and eat them plain with some of their juice. 

416. Oysters on Toast. — Open twelve very large oysters, put 
them in a pan with their liquor, a quarter of a teaspoonful of 
pepper, a wineglass of milk, two cloves, and a small piece of 
mace, if handy \ boil a few minutes until set, mix one ounce of 
butter with half an ounce of flour, put it, in small pieces, in 
the pan, stir round ; when near boiling pour over the toast, and 
serve. A little sugar and the juice of a lemon, is a great 
improvement. 

447. Oysters, plain *ca^?opcf?.— Butter and bread crumb the 
scallop shell, put in six oysters, season, and bread crumb, then 
six more, season again, and broad crumb; if a large shell, six more, 
with a little cayenne and butter, and some of their liquor; cover 
thick with bread crumbs, put in oven, or on gridiron, for thirty 
minutes ; brown with salamander, or on a shovel, and serve. 

These may also be done in patty pans. 
Pieces of the liver of the cod, put into boiling water and set« 
may be added to any of the above escalops. 

448. iSSffa^Zo^^. <— Lobsters, crabs, and cra3rfish must be first 
boiled, the flesh removed from the shell, and minced, adding a 
little chopped onion, popped, salt, and butter, the scallop shell 
well greased, the flesh of the fish laid in, well bread crumbed, and 
pat in the oven or on the gridiron for thirty minutes, and serve. 

These require a little more pepper or cayenne than other fish, 
and a little Chili vinegar may be added. Two spoonfuls of 
melted butter mixed with the flesh of a lobster makes it very 
delicions. 

449. How to chop Onions.'^'Fevr persons know how to chop 
onions properly. In the first place, all tho dry skin must be 
removed, then a thin slice off the top and bottom, or they will 
be bitter, then cut them into thin slices, dividing the onion, and 

9( 



163 CtJLIKART MISCELLAKEOtrS. 

cnt crossways to form dice. If a very slight flaronr is required, 
and the onion is strong, like in the north of England, for it 
must be remembered that the fm^her north you go, the 
stronger the flavour of the root, and if French receipt books 
are exactly copied, it is no wonder that complaints ore made of 
the preponderance of the flavour of the onion ; in which case, 
When chopped, put them in the comer of a napkin or doth, 
wash them in water, squeeze them dry, then put them hatk. on 
the board, and chop finer ; or sometimes only rubbing tiie pan 
or the meat with the onion is quite sufficient. 

450. Larding. — The word larding has very often occmred ifi 
onr receipts ; it may be thought to belong to a style of oooke^' 
too good for the cottage. On the contrary, it is an eoonomica* 
process, and will make lean meat go much farther than with* 
ont it. 

Get what is called a larding needle, that is, a piece of sted 
from six to nine inches long, pointed at one end, and having 
four slits at the other, which will hold a small strip of baeon 
when put. between them. They will perhaps cost tenpence. 
Cut the pieces of bacon two or tiiree iuches long and a quarts 
to half an inch square, put each one after the other in the pin, 
insert it in the meat, and leave only half an inch out; eight 
pieces to each pound. 

451. Bunch qf Sweet Herbs, — In many of the receipts is 
mentioned a bunch of sweet herbs^ which consists, for some 
stews and soups, of a small bunch of parsley, two sprigs of 
thyme, and one bayleaf j if no parsley, four sprigs of winter 
savory, six of thyme, and one bayleaf. 

452. Bread Ct^^J*.-— Take a piece of the crumb of stale 
bread not too hard, bruise it with your hanil, then pass it 
through a coarse sieve or cullender, or in cloth; use where 
required. 

453. Browning for Sauces, — Put half a pound of biown 
sugar into* an iron saucepan, and melt it over a moderate fire 
for about twenty-five minutes, stirring it continually, until quite 
black, but it must become so by degrees, or too sudden a heat 
will make it bitter, then add two quarts of water, and in ten 
minates the sugar will be dissplyecl* Bottle for use. 



OtTLmABY UISCELLAKEOTTS. 163 

Obt&urei TFd^«r.**-Pat in a basin a pint of wat«r and two 
teaspoonfols of tiie above sngar browning; mix well; use whero 
indicated, eithet for stews, gravies, or sauces. 

454. Pease Pudding. — Put a pint of split peas into a clotb, 
•leiife room for tbcir swelling, boil in a gallon of soft water; if 
good, tbey will take an hour, but leave them till tender ; pass 
tiiem through a sieve or cullender, then add a teaspoonful of 
salt, half of pepper, two ounces of butter, and two eggs, whioh^ 
if scarce, can be omitted ; beat up, tie again in cloth, boil lor 
on© hour, and serve with boiled pork. Or when plain boiled, 
a&d the peas are done, open the cloth, season, mix well^ butter 
a basm, shape in, and serve. 

466. Soto to Boil Sicc^-^Txit one quart of water in a pot| 
boil it, wash half a pound of rice, and throw it into the boiling 
water ; boil for ten minutes, or until each grain is rather soft, 
but separate ; drain it in a colander, put it back in a pot which 
you have slightly greased with butter, let it swell slowly near 
tiie fire, or in the oven, until wanted. A little butter may be 
added; each grain will then swell up, and be well separated. 

456. Veal Stuffing. — Chop half a pound of suet, put it in a 
basin with three quarters of a pound of bread crumbs, a tea- 
spoonful of salt, a quarter of pepper, a little thyme, or lemon 
peel chopped, three whole eggs, mix well, and use where 
directed. A pound of bread crumbs and one more e^^ may be 
used : it will make it cut firmer. 

457. Liver Stuffing, — To the above quantity of stuffing, 
chop fine four ounces of the liver of either calf, pig, sheep, or 
lamb, poultry, gr game ; mix well and use, adding a little more 
seasoning. 

These stuffings are varied by the mixture of a little cooked 
ham, anchovies, olives, capers, pickles, or even red herring. In 
fact,. a variety of ways, according to fancy, for any dish you 
please. 

458. Biscuit Ballsr^Vxii in a basin half a pound of suet, 
tiiree teaspoonfuls of onions chopped fine, one of parsley, half 
of salt, quarter of pepper, ten tablespooniuls of biscuit powder, 
two passover biscuits soaked in milk or water a few hours befiirt 

M 2 



16i CUUNABY MISCELLANEOtJS. 

using; two eggs to be added. These are excellent in any thick 
soups or ragouts, and stews of all sorts : make them in balls the 
size of a walnut, stew with meat^ or boil gently twenty minute% 
and use where liked. 

459. Cod Inver Stuffing. '^'Half a pound of raw chopped 
liver, three quarters of a pound of bread crumb or biscuit powdBE» 
salt, pepper, and parsley ; mix with two whole eggs. Use js 
stuffing for any kind of fish. 

460. Cod Idver Balls. — One pound of liver chopped fiic^ 
put into a basin with a pound of fine bread crumbs, two tear 
spoonfuls of chopped onions, two of parsley, two of salt, hall one 
of pepper, a pinch of ground ginger, three eggs ; mix all weH 
make into balls, roll them in flour, use them with any kind of 
stewed fish ; they will take about thirty minutes to cook slowly* 

461. Toad'tn-the'Sole JBatter.'^-'Put into a pan six table* 
spoonfuls of flour, four eggs, one teaspoonful of salt, half of 
pepper ; mix well with a pint of milk ; mix very smooth, and 
use where directed. More milk may be used if liked. 

A little nutmeg may be used in it. This is as good as pan- 
cake batter. 

462. A Common Batter. — Put in a basin six good tabk* 
Bpoonfiils of flour, which dilute very slowly with one pint of 
milk, add one spoonful of salt, quarter that of pepper, beat m 
egg well in it, if used for a toad-in-the-hole. A little parskjf^ 
chopped onions, or a little spice, makes an agreeable change ; it 
will also make nice puddings, if baked alone, or under a joint in 
a well-greased tin. 

A Commoner Sort. — ^For toad-in-the-hole use water, if f09, 
have no milk or eggs handy; a little suet, or fat chopped finejis 
an improvement. 

463. Sow to Boil and Dress Macaroni. — Put in an iron 
pot or stew-pan two quarts of water ; let it boil ; add two tea- 
spoonfuls of salt, one ounce of butter ; then add one pound of 
macaroni, boil till tender ; let it be rather firm to the tooch ; ^ 
is then ready for use, either for soup, pudding, or to be dressed 
with cheese. Drain it in a cullender ; put it back in the paoi 



CULINAltY MISCELLANEOUS. 16ff 

add four onnees of cheese or more, a little butter, salt, and 
pepper ; toss it well together and serve. It will be found light 
and nutritious, and well worthy the notice of vegetarians. 

464. How to Toast Bread. — Procure a nice square loaf that 
lias been baked one or two days previously, then with a sharp 
knife out off the bottom crust evenly, and then as many slices as 
you require, about a quarter of an inch in thickness. Contrive 
to have a clear fire : place a slice of the bread upon a toasting- 
fork, about an inch from one of the sides, hold it a minute 
before the fire, then turn it, hold it another minute, by which 
tame the bread will be thoroughly hot, then begin to move 
it g^raduaUy to and fro until the whole surface has assumed a 
yellowish-brown colour, then turn it again, toasting the other 
nde in the same manner; lay it then upon a hot plate, have 
•ome fresh or salt butter, (which must not be too hard, as press- 
ing it upon the toast would make it heavy,) spread a piece, 
rather less than an ounce, over, and cut the toast into four or 
six pieces ; should you require six such slices for a numerous 
family, about a quarter of a pound of butter would suffice for the 
whole. Tou will then have toast made to perfection. 

464a. Jam of all hinds, — ^Almost all small faimers and cot- 
tagers have generally some kind of fruit to spare at the end of 
the season, any of which can be made into jam. Thus, for 
strawberry jam, pick one pound of strawberries, put them in a 
pan with three quarters of a pound of white powdered sugar; 
p«t the whole on the fire, stir with a wooden spoon, and boil till 
nther thick ; or try a little on a plate, if it sets. When cold, 
fill your preserve jars, cover over with strong white paper, and 
let them remain in a rather cold place. 

Baspberries and green gooseberries will require a little more 
Mling, and more sugar. Cranberries, mulberries, cherries, and 
eorrants, can all be done the same way. 

464b. Currant tT^Z/y.— Put in a pan half a sieve of fresh 
gathered currants, with the stalks ; add to it a gill of water/ put 
on the fire, and boil till every currant has opened ; then pass the 
juice through a sieve or cullender, and to every quart put one 

Cund of white sugar ; boil fast and skim, and when the preserve 
gins to stick to the spoon, and is quite clear, fill your preserve 
jots, and cover over when cold; but, to be sure, try some on • 



166 nunrs on tca^ coffeSi eto. 

plate before potting. If it sets well it is done ; a few raspbemei 
added is an improvement. 

PICKLES. 

465. JSed Cabbage. — I perceive in most cottages the gaxden 
possesses a few of these exceedingly useful productions ; at soiiie 
seasons they grow larger than others, when they should be 
pickled thus : — Cut them into thin slices, remove the hard stalki 
lay them on a slab, cover with salt for twelve hours, tnraixig 
them now and then, clean oS all the salt, and place {hem in 
stone jars ; boil some vinegar, and to every quart add one ounce 
of black pepper, and seven button onions, or two large ones 
sliced, boil for five minutes, and pour over cabbage ; cover tbe 
lar, and let it remain three weeks before using. 

Onions may be omitted, and only cold vinegar used, btit I do 
not approve of it, being hard and indigestible. A bimch of 
^weet herbs boiled in the vinegar is an improvement. 

I send you no other receipts, as mixed pickles can now be 
bought cheaper than they can be made at home. 

A FEW ORIGINAL HINTS ON COFFEE, TEA, &o. 

466. Simplified Mode of Making Coffee, — Pat one oonoe Of 
ground coffee in a pan, which place over the fire; keep stiniog 
it until quite hot, but take care it does not bum; then poor orer 
quickly a quart of boiling water, close it immediately, keep it ootflff 
fhnn the fire, but not to simmer; then fill your cup without ahaikiiig 
It; or pass it through a doth into a coffee pot, or it may be siaiit 
some time previous, and warmed again. The groimds can be ]m||(% 
and boiled for making the oofibe of the next ^y, by which at kipi 
a quarter of an ounce is saved. In country places, where milk is 
good and cheap, I recommend that half boiled milk should be i|sed 
with the coffee. The idea of wanmng coffee is my own* and the 
economy is fiiU ten per cent. 

The foUowing is the result of some of my experiments with tins 
qrstem. But I must first tell you that my exertions in the ^wfaicm- 
flA>le quarter of St. Giles's gave great satisfaction to my s^tuagenaxita 
pupil, whom I taught to cook the ox cheek, and she and several of Iter 
neighbours clubbed together to give a fashionable *' Ua** whidi of 
course my vanity made me immediately accept. Having but Httle 
confidence in what they would provide, I bought a quarter of a 
pound of ground cof^, intending giving them a lesson how to make 
coffee. On. my arrival, I was received like a princess in a fidiy land.*! 



HINTS OK TBk, 009FEE, EXa 167 

the little parlour was not only deani bnt ornamented, at the cost of 
a ftw pence, with wall flowers from the neij^ hhourmg garden (the 
best in the world, Covent Garden), generously dispensing their per- 
fome over pyramids of muffins and crumpets. Having cordially 
•haken hands with my host, I set oheeiifully to work, and got 
Md of an old pitcher, but dean; in it I put the coffee, and 
likoed it dose before the fire, begging the old lady to keep 
toriung it round, and stirring it till the powder was hot I then 
poored three quarts of boiling water, allowed it to stand fbr ten 
niinutes, and then poured it out into the oups, with the best milk that 
tfonld be got, and sugar. The coffee being partaken of, I put into 
«aoh cup a good teaspoonful of oaidster oocoa, with half a teaspoonM 
€f sugar, holding the kettle in one hand and a spoon in the other. I 
poured on the water, and kept stirring all the time, adding a little 
nulk. In the meantime I had put one ounce of tea into a large 
teapot, which I had placed by the side of the fire, in order that 
the l^ves should g^t hot, so that when the water was poured on 
tihepi, that they i^oi4d immediately give forth their aroma. By 
the time the cocoa had been partaken of, the tea was ready, and 
St was declared by all the old dames present that they never had had 
fooh a cup ot tea, although they bought it at the same shop, 
snd paid the same price-; and they could not account for such 
* legerdemain,'^ but would endeavour to imitate it. I was greatly 
-thanked on my departure, and received the compliment of an old 
jhoe bdng thrown after me; not a French dancing shoe, but f\ 
genuine British bit of solid work, the sole having a very uneven 
Appearance, being studded with several dozen of iron nails. 

Thus terminated the entertainment g^ven to me by these poor but 
^pateful people of the black back street of St. Giles's. 

I made the cocoa thus, not having sufficient utensils ; bnt I hare 
fbqod it an economical plan to make the ground cocoa hot, adding a 
little water, and mixing it smooth with either cold milk or water, it 
vivos it a richness whidb is not got by the usual system. Place it on 
tiie fire, keep stirring, and when just on the point of boiling, serve. 
Chocolate can be made the same way^ only stirring it more, with a 
tpoon, ii you have no chocolate pot. 

In the way of coffee, in my opinion, nothing can be more pure 
than what I bought the other day from the canister, when walking 
hj diance in the Borough, at the shop of Messrs. White and Fair- 
ehild ; and I must, while on this subject, be allowed to state that, in 
|ny opinion, a good cup of coffee cannot be made without the intro- 
duction of a little chicory, although I am aware that some dealers 
imposed on the public by selling an article composed of chicory at 
A cofTce price. I cannot but admire Messrs. White's plan, which is 
on no account to sell any ground coffee mixed with chicory, but to sdl 
H to their customers the one separate trom the other. They then 



168 BEVERAGES. 

recommended to me some canister coffee, patented and prepared onlj 
by them. On opcniog the canister the Aroma was very re&eshing. 
On asking how it was roasted (rather a bold question on my part, 
I admit), he very civilly asked me to follow him to the back of the 
premises, where some very extensive rooms are fitted up for the pnzpose 
of roasting ; he then put some coffee-berries into a cylinder ux feet 
in length and twenty inches in circumference; then put them in a 
furnace which roasted the berries in a most scien&fic manner, bdng 
turned during the while by the aid of steam power. When soiR- 
ciently roasted, the coffee was, while hot, put in a steam null and 
grouxid, being forced from the mill into the canisters and sealed 
up as soon as possible, and put into stock. I beg to forward you one <i 
the four quarter of a pound packets I bought. On. testing it I 
fomid that an ounce made one quart of excellent coffee. 



BEVERAGES. 

As &r as the food of man goes, I believe, dearest, that our dnty is 
almost at an end; but here is one important item which snpporti 
the vitality of man as much as food does, I mean beverages ; in ftct^ 
one is inseparable from the other : to drink without eating, or to eat 
without drinking, would soon send us to an early grave. Tme, if too 
much is taken of one or the other, it upsets the digestive organs, and 
materially affects the functions of that most important part of tlie 
human frame, the stomach, which, acting in accordance with tiM 
wonderful works of nature, refuses any food or drink that does not 
accord with its fonctions. True, bad food and beverages of all kinds 
are sometimes forced on it ; but then, if it does not disturb its fimcticn8 
immediately, it acts on it gradually, and in course of time entirelj 
destroys its coating or toilette. Is it not, then, important, that greet 
care should be taken in what we eat or drink ? The best of food is often 
spoilt by drinking bad beverages. Amongst the higher orders of 
society, the pride of an " epicure" is to select the best of wines^ whiicb 
he considers one of his greatest treasures, scientifically <^lfli»giwg them 
to the various courses of his dinner. 

You probably will again remark, that I am deviating trom. tlie 
purport of our present little work, by alluding to the higher dass ef 
living in its pages, while in realily it is intexided fi}r the million^ and 
not for the wealthy few. My excuse is, that if a rich gourmet take 
so much care in selecting his beverages, why should not a poor hoose- 
wife be as particular in choosing her more humble drinks P Is it not 
more desirable for the artizan, who cannot afford to drink mnchbeer^ 
to have with his meal a sound clear glass of pure water, fall of health 
and life, than to have a muddy one ? For I have actually seen pe<^Ie 
drixik the drainings ad they drip from the roof of a house — the simple 



BEVEBAGEd. 169 

idea of letting it rest for a minute never entering their heads ; or better 
•till, to clarify it by passing it through a clean cloth, or giving it a boil, 
fliid letting it get cold before drinking, for any doubtful water will 
frnprore and get soft by boiling. 

- JiVxr those in middling circumstances, who can afford their malt 
Bquor at their meals, pale ale, or light table-beer, or ale, is preferable 
t0 any heavy stoat, as they facilitate digestion. 

Since my return from France, there is nothing I miss so much as 
that light and cooling drink called by our allies '* Vin ordinaire," 
tiboagh I was in hopes that after the great exertions made by several 
members of parliament, a reduction of the duty on these simple but 
generous wines would take place, though probably they would not 
te partaken of to any great extent by the masses, who would not 
imderstand their properties, although there is not one Englishman out 
of twenty who visits Franco, but who in time takes a liking to these 
reaUy harmless wines. 

I do not want to deprive you of your sherry or port before or after 
dinner; however, recollect that nothing assists digestion and refreshes 
the palate more than a good glass of light wine; and therefore iA 
would be a great boon to the public if they could be imported free of 
dnty. 

To our friend Dr. King I am much indebted, after having had a 
conversation on the above subject, for his sending to me the other 
day a case of pure French wine, having, as he stated in his letter, 
1)e6n present while it was drawn from the rough French cask. 
I was more astonished when he informed me that its price was only 
twenty-eight shillings per dozen, and was purchased from the famous 
boose of Campbell, of Regent Street, London. It appears that this 
gtentleman pays an annual visit to the different vintages and villages 
which encompass the banks of the Garonne, and purchases largely 
fi<pm the peasantry, remaining there all the brewing season, and per- 
tonally superintending its make. The principal wines are called 
** La Rose," "St. Julien," " Vin de Grave," " Sauteme," " Barsac," 
and numerous other kinds, all of which are highly recommended 
bj the &culty. Light Amontillado, Rhenish wine, and Bucellos, are 
tiso conmiendable at meal-times. 

Eor those who cannot afford to buy malt liquors or wines, I have 
been led to try the following receipts, which wUl be found extremely 
vseAil for people in small circumstances. 



170 CHEAP BBINKS. 

A SERIES OP NEW AND CHEAP DRINKS. 

467. Pat a gallon of water on to boil, oat np one pound of applet^ 
each one into quarters, put them in the water, and hoal them untU 
they can be pulped, pass the liquor through a eollender, boil it t^ 
again with half a pound of brown sugar, scam; and bottle lor awe, 
taking care not to cork the bottle, and keep it in a cool place x tiM 
apples may be eaten with sugar. 

Another way, — Bake the apples first, then put them in a gallon paii« 
add the sugar, and pour boiling water oyer, let it get cold, pass the 
liquor as above, and bottle. 

468. Apple Toatlt and WoUt^-^Il xneoe of bread* slowliy toagt^ 
till it gets quite black, and added to the above;, ma^^ % very nice tmd 
refreshing drink &>r invalids. 

469. Apple Barley Water, — ^A quarter of a pound of pearl huAef 
instead of toast added to the above, and boil ibr one hour, is also a 
very nice drink. 

470. Apple Sice TFo/er.— «-Half a ponnd of rice, boiled In the al)0V8 
xmtil in pulp, passed through a cullender, and drunk when cold. 

All kinds of fruits may be done the same way. 
Pigs and French plums are excellent ; also raisins. 
A little ginger, if approved of^ may be used. 

471. For Spring Drink, — ^Rhubarb, in the same qnantities, unci 
done in the same way as apples, adding more sugar^ is very co<^^ng• ' 

Also green gooseberries. 

471a. Lemonade, — Cut in very thin slices three lemony, pot them 
In a basin, add half ^ pound of sugar, either white or brown; brpiM 
altogether, add a gallon of water, and stir welL It is then ready. 

472. For Summer Drink. — One pound of red currantsi, braised with 
some raspberry, half a pound of sugar added to a gallon of cold 
water, well stirred, allowed to settle, and bottled. 

473. Mulberry. — ^The same, addmg a little lemon-peeL 

A little cream of tartar or dtric acid added to these renders then 
more cooling in summer and spring. 

ON MARKETING. 

Mt deab Peibot),— In most cookery books, which are supposed to 
t>e written for the middle classes of socle' y, we find at the beginning, 
and in large type, directions how to market and choose the best joints 
of meat, poultry, fish, but rarely vegetables, how all the best 
qualities of each should be known, but nothing is said about the 
second and third qualities, which two-thirds of the people of Enghmd 
Dpnsome; also directions forjudging of the finest haunch of mutton^ or 



CK KAAKETIKO. 171 

^l6hi of beef; but never of the neck or scrag of mutton^ or the skirfc 
of beef, or sheep's head, liver, Ac. 

If the directions of those works were strictly followed, one-third of 
KIm people would be starving, and a population of dogs (as in Turkey) 
would have to be kept to eat up the supposed offU. At the present 
SKKnent oar soldiers, as well as those of our allies, the French, are 
feeding excellently off that which is thrown away by the Turks, the 
head, feet, &o. &c,, of the animal, which is by them declared unclean. 
finch ought never to be the case in a Christian country, for we may bo 
^uite certain that, unless the animal is diseased, all those parts which 
0An be digested is good food for man ; but, there may be some who, 
from over-indulgence in luxuries, have so brought the stomach into 
tiiat state, that there are but certain parts of the animal of which 
they can partake; these persons must, of course, pay higher prices 
lor that kind of meat, and leave the other parts cheaper for those 
liaving healthy and good digestions to feed on. It is, therefore, our 
doty hare to teach the labourer's and oottager'f wife how to buy it 
cheap, sweet, wholesome, and nutritious. 

ilf»^o».-— The first quality of mutton ought to be between four 
or five years old j but at present it is rarely got above three, and often 
^nder two years. The flesh ought to be a darkish, dear, red colour, 
the Iht firm and white, the meat short and tender when pinched* 
and ought not to be too fat. 

Second quality. — ^The fat is rather spongy, the lean close and 
irough grained, and a deep red, and the fat adheres firmly to the meat* 

Third quality. — This is, perhaps, a sheep which has had some disease 
and recovered; the liver would always show this, but as butchers 
generally remove it, and do not let it be seen, yon cannot judge from it. 
The flesh will be paler, the fat a ^nt white, and the flesh loose from 
the bone ; if very bad and diseased the fat will be yellow, and the lean 
ftibby and mcnst. To ascertain if it is fresh proceed aa for pork. 

Zamb should be firar or five months old, and ought to weigh from 
thirty to forty pounds ; the fat ought to be white and light in appear- 
ance, the flesh a fkmtish white, smooth, and firm to the touch. 

The second quality is not so well covered with flit, the fiesh rather 
^ed, the meat softer, and every joint presents a coarser appearance. 

The t]iird quality is fiabby, lean, and red, the fat rather yellow, 
and will keep sweet but a short time. 

To ascertain if fresh, place the finger between the Idn and kidney, 
and, if moist, or tainted, will be easily ascertained by the smell. 

JBeef. ~^MoBt towns and counties in the United Kingdom differ in 
the kind of cattle brought to market. It is not our duty here to 
mention the breed whi(^ w« think the best, and on which so many 
difiisent qphikms axifltj bat tha quality of meat depends upon the 



172 ON MAREjrriKa 

feeding. The best quality of beef will have an open grain, bright 
red colour, the fat white, and the bark smooth. Some of the best 
qualities will have the fat yellow, from being fed on (nl-cake ; and, 
unless it has afterwards been fed on turnips, will be wasteM ik 
cooking, although the meat may be tender and rich. 

The second qoality will be close-grained and rather flabby, paler itt 
colour, and the fat a dead white and the bark rough. 

The third quality, the grain is very close, no streaks of fat between 
the grain, and of deep brickdust red, tough under the finger, the 
fat hard and skinny. To ascertain the age, look at the bone or horn 
which runs through the ribs of beef; if a fine four-year old hei^, 
this horn or bone will be soft or tender, and becomes harder the older 
the ox. But the best plan to judge of the fiavour of the meat belbire 
you do it by eating it, is to look at the tongue of the bullock, and if 
it is plump and has a clean bright appearance, with the fat at the end 
of a pinkish white, then the meat will turn out good; but if the tongne 
abould look dark, the fat a dead white, then that meat will eat hard 
and flavourless. The same holds good with sheep. 

Veal, — ^There is more difficulty in the choice of veal than any other 
meat, although the general opinion is, it is the easiest. I often hear 
how white it is, how plump it looks: these are often produced 
artificially. 

The preference is usually given to the cow calf, from its being 
whiter and having the udder; but if a bull calf has been properly fe^ 
and killed at about ten weeks old, nothing can be finer in flavour or 
closer in grain when cooked, and will be much more juicy than the 
cow calf. The grain should be close, firm, and white, the &t a 
pinkish white, not a dead white, and the kidneys well covered with 
thick white fat; that is the first class veaL The second quality ia 
darker in fiesh, may be slaughtered in the country, and equally aa 
nourislung as the first; the third quality will have less fat round the 
kidney, be coarser grained, and the lean red. It is often more 
nourishing than the very white veal, but not so delicate or digestible^ 
It is caused by the calf being reared in the open air. 

If the suet under the kidney is soft and clammy the meat la not 
fresh. 

The neck is the first joint that becomes tinted. Calves' liver 
should be firm, and free fix)m gristle or spots; the heart should be. 
surrounded with fat. 

When veal has to be kept, it should always be hung up, and never 
allowed to lay on anything, or it soon becomes tainted. 

JPo9'^. — ^The quality of tins entirely depends on the feeding. A friend 
of mine made various experiments, and more particularly on the same 
litter of pigs, and the various cozes and different flavour of the meat 



OK MABKETIKa 173 

was extraordinary. There is one thing very certain, that whafcever 
a pig is fdd upon, it will be much better in size and quality if kept 
dean and well washed at least once a week. Those breeds that 
produce a fine close-grained meat, not too much fat, and that firm, 
solid, and pinkish white, are the best; if the tongue is dean and full, 
the animal is well fed and healthy. 

The second quality of pork may be very good, but the flesh will 
he hard and red, and the fat a yellow white. 

The third quality, the meat will be coarse-grained, the fat sofb, 
and the tongue and kidneys discoloured. Measly pork may be known 
by the little kernels in the fat: it is not allowed to be sold by the 
butchers, and yet, in many large towns in England, it is openly 
exposed for sale. 

If the flesh is clammy and moist, it is not fresh. The best plan to 
tell the freshness of this, or any meat, is to take with you, in hot 
weather, to market two wooden skewers, and insert them in the flesh 
near the bone, and remove them, and the nose will detect it imme- 
diately; this is much better than touching the meat. These skewers 
should be scraped after being used. 

Slicking Figs, — The skin should be clear and fresh, the tongue 
elean, the flesh of a pinkish hue, and not too large in size. 

JPoultry, — ^The means of telling the various qualities of poultry are 
well known : the age is known by the spur, and the quality by the skin. 
There is, perhaps, no poultry in the world that comes up to the well- 
led Dorking capon. The new breed of Cochin China fowls, of which 
the best tor eating is the grey kind, if fed and treated in the same 
way as the Dorking capons, might produce a larger fowl, but it is 
questionable if so tender. 

White legged fowls are generally preferred, but there are black 
ones equally as good. In country places, where chickens are some- 
times required to be killed in the morning for that day's dinner, it 
is best to give each, shortly before killing it, a tcaspoonful of vinegar, 
which will cause them to eat tender. This can be done with all 
kinds of poultry. 

Geese the same. 

Ducks should have the feet supple, the breast full and hard, and 
a dear skin. 

Tuarkeys should have fljie, full, and firm legs, skin white, breast 
full, neck long. 

Game may be detected by removing the feathers off the under 
part of the leg, and if the skin is not discoloured, they are fresh. 
The age may be known by placing the thumb into the beak, and 
holding the bird up with the jaw part of the beak: if it breaks, it 
is young ; if not, it is old, and requires keeping longer before cooking 
to be eatable. 



174 EITCHEff REQUISITES. 



KITCHEN EEQXnSITES. 

As a workman cannot work properly without the reqninte to(^ 
or the painter produce the proper shade without the necesnuy 
colours, in like manner does every person wishing to economiis 
his food, and to cook it properly, require the proper furniture wher ^ 
with to do it. It is to he hoped that these pages, which have eost 
me hoth time and trouhle, as well as months of travelling, will be 
read by many above the class to whom it is more especially dodU- 
cated ; and that hereafter kitchen utensils may be considered proper 
to give as a wedding present to a couple commencing housekeeping* 
Nothing, I am certain, could be given that would be a better pro- 
moter of peace and happiness in their home. 

In a superior cottage, which, should it consist of four rooms, the 
kitchen should be the back one, and not, as is often the case, the 
Lout one, made into a kitchen and sitting-room, and the back one a 
washhouse and receptacle for dirt, &c. Whilst I am on this subject^ 
I would remark that, in my opinion, all cottages or houses require, in 
this climate, a porch, or second door ; it would prevent the continued 
draught and blowing in of the rain and dust, and thus avoid a great 
deal of illness amongst the inmates, and add greatly to the cleanliness 
and comfort of the dwelling; but if built upon H.R.H. Prince 
Albert's plan, they do not require it. 

The back room should be fitted up with a proper grate, with oven 
and boiler, and a copper holding at least six gtdlons. It should 
have the requisite shelves, and a little sink to hold a tub, and with 
a tap or pump for watear; the latter article I consider the most 
essential requisite of a cottager's dwelling: it should possess two 
gridirons, one single, one double, a lai^e and small t)rying-pan, three 
black saucepans, holding one gallon, half gallon, one quart, or a three* 
legged black pot, instead of the gallon one, a large iron spoon, a ladlc^ 
two wooden spoons, a wooden bowl, a cullender, a chopper, a large 
knife, a baking pan, a rolling pin, a paste brush, a stove brush, two 
tin tart ^shes, three brown basins, six bread tins or pans. 

A more humble abode, possessing two rooms, or perhaps only one» 
which latter I disapprove of very much, as there ought to be two in 
every dwelling, however small, will perhaps not be able to afford so many 
articles of furniture ; in which case I would recommend, as being the 
most serviceable, the black pot, gridiron, frying-pan, earthen pan, or 
bowl, or spoon, ladle, cullender, chopper, three basins, two tin tart 
dishes, baking pan, with oven : with these most ol the receipts in these 
pages may be cooked to perfection. 

And with the pan, gridiron, and ftying-pan, nearly one half of the 
receipts may be done. For baking stewing-pan, see Appendix, 



boteb'b asbxal cooKnra stovi:. 17& 



ON THE SELECTION 0B» VEGETABLES 

As regards vegetation in general, the eye can soon detect the glowing 
fireshness, which nature deposits npon such delicate articles of food as 
peM» Mpartigaa, cucumhers, heans, spinach, salads of all kinds ; any of 
the tibcFve will not keep ti'esh after being cut, longer than twenty-four 
htmn, during the summer, and twice that time in winter. All 
-Vegctaides should be kept in as cool a place as possible; still, when 
the bloom disappears, it is time to make your bargain, as they then 
can be had cheaper : do not, however, buy any vegetable on any part 
of which decomposition has commenced to any extent, as if eaten in 
this state it will be found injurious to health. 

Vegetables such as cabbage, cauliflower, common greens, carrots, 
turnip-tops, leeks, celery, artichokes, both globe and Jerusalem, will 
keep much longer* 

Another way to ascertain if vegetables are old gathered, is to break 
a |Mece off any one with the hand ; if it snaps crisply it is fresh ; i^ 
on the contrary, it has a flabby appearance, and is of a softish con- 
sistency, it is stale, and should be bought accordingly. 

SOYER'S AERIAL COOKING STOVE. 

Mr BBAABST Friend, — ^Wonders will never cease ; and ballooning, 
I am happy to say, has at last proved itself of some use to humanity, 
for, no doubt, this ingenious apparatus, which I have now in contem- 
plation before me, must have sprung out of those atmospheric castles 
BO unsafely built in the air; but the superiority of this little aerial 
pigmy is so much above that of his brother monster balloon, that you 
can have as many ascents in the course of a day as you choose, even 
with a parachute, without the slightest danger 'of getting upset ; it is 
capable also of successfully braving the strongest current of air ; and, 
contrary to all aeronautical notions, its descent is even more agreeable 
than its ascent, for it actually refreshes and elevates the spirit of the 
spectators, instead of cau»ng them foar, whilst descendii)g to terra 
Jhtna. 

In this unassuming utensil, Eloise, the wealthy epicure and great 
amateurs of cookery will be able to dress a most recKh^hS dinner 
before the dining or drawing-room Are, without soiling his apart- 
ment, apparatus, or even his fingers ; the cottager will be able, before 
his humble fire, to transmogrify his coarse food to a nice stew, roast, 
or baked pie to perfoction. 

In every cottage bread will be lighter, and contain more nutri- 
ment, than when baked in a large oven, in which considerable evapo- 
ration always takes place. 

This little ovm bus not ths slightest resemblance to our magie 



176 CBY8TAL PALACE. 

stove^ which was made for the wealthy only, and which is now largely 
fraternizing with our troops and allies, in the war camps in the east. 

This little apparatus will he dedicated to all classes, hut more par- 
ticularly to the massest, as I think, from the model which I now have 
before me, it can he made for a few shillings. 

I have already tried many receipts in it, all of which have more 
than answered my expectations, copies of them will be printed and 
sold with the apparatus. I have made good soup, and dressed fish 
and meat of all kinds, as well as vegetables, having also roasted and 
baked meat, and made sweet and savoury pastry in it. 

In fact, I may say, that in reality it is almost a complete kitchen 
in a very small compa&s, a real petit Hjoux de famille, not quite to 
large as our extensive friend Signor Lablache's &.vourite hat. 



VISIT TO THE CBYSTAL PALACE. 

Deaeest Eloise, — I was very much disappointed on my arrlvaliu 
London that you were unable, through illness, to meet me at the 
station, as I need not tell you how charmed I should have been to 
embrace you, after nearly fifteen months' absence, and verbally thank 
you for your more than punctual correspondence. 

My first visit, after my arrival in this monster metropolis, wag 
fiir from being a mournful one, such as I have been used to in my 
rusticating rambles. No, my dear, I had seen all its " dark sidt^ 
of life before. It was to that &iiy land and palace at Sydenham^ 
which, in my estimation, is a continuation of the "Arabian Nights." 
It would be impossible for me to describe this wonder of the nineteenth 
century. I might almost say that it would be giving to every one a 
description of his own property, as it is the FeopWs Palaces and» 
no doubt, every one will, if possible, go as often as conveni^it to gei 
a sight of his own property, when they will be as charmed as I was. 

If I cannot serve as a cicerone, as far as regards the beauties of the 
building, yet there is one department which no visitor can enter 
without the permission of the grand major-domo, or by the sanction 
of the chef -de-cuisine, I mean the victualling department and ceUars 
of this gigantic place. The annals of gormandizing never told such a 
tale as is here daily witnessed ; never were provifflons better selected 
and more carefully managed than by Mr. Home, the well-known and 
talented director of this department. 

The cooking is most ably conducted by Mr. Fidler, late of the 
Reform Club, and pupil of Mr. Soyer. A large number of cooki^ 
under his care and guidance, are daily erecting pyramids of food, 
from the most recherche dish to the huge mounttun of viands^ to 
satisfy the craving appetites of the thousands who daily visit this seat 
of intellect. Napoleon the First had a saying, that it is the stomaeh 



▲ VISIT TO THE CBTSTAL PALACE. 177 

whieh g^reros the world : truly it is ; for, to see the thousands who 
are daily faring before a most sumptuous huffet, at once gives an 
air of truth to the great warrior's maxim. And these refreshments, 
supplied as they are at a reasonable price, are sure to attract the 
attention of the dainty public, and cannot fail being both beneficial to 
shareholders and pai'takers. 

I must not omit to mention one of the most interesting depart- 
ments of the building, which is the manufacture of aerated waters, 
where thousands of grosses of bottles are daily filled in a most artistic 
manner, under the direction of Mr. Cox, whose new beverages, as you 
doubtless recollect, were so much appreciated at the Exhibition of 
1851. Being in a room where a private dinner was to take place for 
twenty persons, I was charmed with the beautiful appearance pre- 
sented by a pyramid of choice fruits, which on inquiry I ascertained 
was supplied by no less a person than the prize fruiterer, as he is 
called at the fruit shows, Mr. Lewis Solomon, of Covent Garden. 

In the monster kitchen all the latest culinary improvements seem 
to have been placed, and are daily in use. The one that carries off the 
pahn, in my estimation, is a beautiful gas roasting apparatus, designed 
and patented by Messrs. Deane and Dray, of London-bridge. It is 
internally lined with red bricks, which reflect a great heat on the 
object roasting. Tons of meat and thousands of fowls have been 
already dressed in it. For Gas Cooking, see page 90. 

Chod PicJcling for Beef and Pork, — Put in a pan or tub five 
pounds of salt, three ounces of saltpetre, half a pound of brown sugar, 
for a jcnnt weighing from ten to twelve pounds, rub it well with 
the above mixture three or four times, letting it remain in pickle for 
a week ; it is then ready for cooking : half an ounce of peppercorns, 
or a few aromatic herbs, will vary the flavour. 

Bound of beef, edgebone, breast, flanks, or ox tongues, are the 
pieces generally salted ; small legs, shoulders, and belly of pork, pig's 
cheek and feet the same. Time your pickling according to size. For 
plain pickling, omit the sugar and saltpetre. 

NEW WAY OF MAKING BEEF TEA. 

Cut a pound of solid beef into small dice, which put into a stew- 
pta, with two small pats of butter, a clove, a small onion sliced, and 
two ialtspoonfuls of salt ; stir the meat round over the fire for ten 
minntet, until it produces a thickish gravy, then add a quart of boil- 
ing water, and let it simmer at the comer of the fire for half an hour, 
skimming off every particle of fat ; when done pass through a sieve. 
I have always had a great objection to passing broth through a cloth, 
as it frequently spoils its flavour. 

The same, if wanted plun, is done by merely omitting the vege- 
tables and clove : the butter cannot be objectionable, as it is taken 
out in gkimming ; pearl-barley, vermicelli, rice, &c., may be served 
in it if reqpred, A little leek, celery, or parsley may be added^ 



APPENDIX. 



ON CARVING JOINTS. 

Beab EiiOiSB, — I insert the following lesson on thi^t culii^iry 
accomplishment, carving, knowing what an important item it is in 
the art and mystery of cookery, and yet, how few there are who 
understand that apparently simple art. 

First, you must truss your joint with taste, ajifi take away any 
unsightly hone to give it a good shape, more especially the neck, 
loin, or hreast of either veal, mutton, pork, or lamh. 

For a shilling or so you can purchase a small sj^w, and ipstead of 
letting the hutcher divide the bone of a loin of mutton carelessly, saw 
the bone through at about a distance of half an inch firom each other. 
Bibs of lamb, and breasts of mutton and veal the same, These being 
most difficult joints to carve, should be sawn carefully. 

Koast ribs of beef, and sirloin, ought to be cut thinnish, following, 
as near as possible, the grain of the meat, which you can soon learn 
to do by paying a little attention. A little fat and gravy should be 
served on each plate. 

Salt beef ought to be cut thinner still. If out of a ^ou^d op f^ 
silver side, cut it even. Cold meat requires to be cut thinner than 
hot. 

Roast fillet of veal, cut as round of beef, helping thin slices of 
hooon or salt boiled pork ; a little stuffing and gravy to be added. 

Mutton requires to be cut rather thicker than beef or ve^ ; pork 
the same. 

My way of carving a leg of mutton is by putting one prong of 
the fork in the knuckle-bone, holding it in the left hand, then I cut 
five or six slices in a slanting manner, towards me, dividing the first 
two or three cuts equally amongst all the plat«s. By this method 
you keep the meat full of gravy, each slice retai^ng its portion; 
and it is f^r better, in an economical point of view, than catting the 
joint across the centre, as by this means all the gravy nms out, esf»- 
dslly if the meat is over done. 

Haunch of mutton I carve the same, giving a slice of the loin and 
one of the leg to each guest. 
• Saddle of mutton should never be cut across the loin if you study 
fioonomy. Pass the point of the knife between the bai!k>lxme and 
the mei^t, then hegm. at tb^ top and cut as thin chops in a slanting 
jHwMaon^ each slice about half an inch thick, which will fpwe you a &ir 



^PBKDix: 179 

proportion of fat and lean. B; tli'ia method, you can cut enough 
for ten to twelve personi, whemaa by the other way jou only ^b 
enongli for four or five. 

For leg of lamb or poHc proceed m fbr mutton, ajid for loin, 
ribs, breast, or neck of eithw, proGaB4 w above, baving preriouti]' 
divided it with a Mw, irhiiih gr^Batly fiidliM^ the carving of these 




SOTEE'3 BApIHG STEWINfl PAN. 

Dbab Eloise,— Since T seat yon the receipt for mj new pan, I 
perceive that very little fat is required with any meat done in it. 

In the event <^ stewing fat meat or iripe (which ji Bometimes un- 
ay<ddable), I first, before sending it to the table, remore the fet 
yMA rises to the top with a apoaa. 

I muat say that the more I lua the pas tiie better I like it. I' 
bave had it registered and they ere noiv being manufitcUired in large 
quantitiiB by Uessrs. Deone and Uray, £ing William-street, Oitf, 
Mid will doahtlesa be b«fare tb« puUio in ■ ftw wedct. For 
de*oriptioo, m« page 60. 




SEMI-EOASTING IH THE BAKINQ STEWING PAN. 
This cut represents a tin pan in wliich a, podding is placed, and on 
the trivet b. joint of beef, previously boned; it is suspended from tlie 
iiuide. Potstoes may be baked round the meat, withont interfering 
with the pudding. The pana will consist of three diferent rizea ; 
namely, one to hold two quarts, one four, and the other ail. Lean 
meat ia preferable to fst for lemi-roaating in the baMng itewing pan. 




ALARUM, OE COOKING CLOCK. 

By the ud of thli little ilaram the hoasewife will be able to time 
her joints, piea, and pndtUngs, to an instant. 

By winding it up and setting the hand back, starUng from tw{Jv% 
tc the time reqair^ni for the article to cook. Say it is on^ and your 
j oint is to be done at three, — more the band to ten, wind ap the 
spring', and place the boi on the table, giving at the time an impol- 
uon to the pendulum. 

N.B. The fire must be of a proper heat, or yonr joint will be (itber 
aniler or orer-done. They are t« be purchased at Ifo. 46, King 
WiUiMn Btnet, City. 




SOTEE'S IMPROVED BAKING DISH. 

Tbe klxnra ii a sketch of my imprared Boking-diih, wliich I bare 
bc&re described at page 94. 

If tbe oven is rather sUcIc, tbe pudding baked in it will require 
tomiDg; tbereCbre, when well aet, remove the gratjiig contuiiiiig 
the meat and potatoes, cut your pudding in foor pieces, turn enoh 
piece, replace the grating, oud bake till done. 




\'Ei3ETABLE DKAINER. 

The above is a sketch of a saucepan, fitted with a perforated pan 
and a ve^tetable di^er. 

This group, though aitremely umple, is perbapa one of the most 
economical cooking oteosilB ever put before the publii^ end ought 
to have a place in ever; kitclien. 

It ponesxes two great quolitiee, inaamnch aa it saves time, and 
luperaedea the tedioua method of fishing tbe greens or cabbage out of 
tbe saucepan; and preventi tbe son eyerj-dvj «srJkCA'SDsjcfms(,-^M&>- 



}82 



APPENBUE. 



the water in which the vegetables have been boiled, a quantity of the 
material, which by accident might be left iA the pot — ^thereby 
clogging up the drain, to the annoyance cf ^iti household. To be had 
of Messrs. Deane & Bray, l^ing Wlllkb 9lre6t, City. 

Fit the pertbrftid^ pm itMb tij« ttmmOii ktf ffli it with water, 
add two teaspoonfulfi dt Mdly mi #llM ihs i^mt bbils put in your 
greens, or whateHrtf elfle you tA^ dbtk. ' tiet k Bfitt tet until tender, 
then lift out the perM^ hjf ^ ImMm, mA iHth the crusher 
press lightly the water out, and serve. 

To boil pork, bacon, or salt beef, with greens : — ^When any of these 
are half done, put in your greens, using only half the quantity of 
salt ; when ready, dish up the meat, press the broth out, which save 
ftir Botp ^ th6 next dajr's tise. (^ l^upi^.) 





This represents a model of a 
CWmfifey Screw-jack for suspend- 
ing joMi to. Its cost is very 
trifling, and dttiy be purchased 
id any H^t^tOdtgei^s, It will 
fit on mf ifiitfitel-shelf ; and it 
enabks thlj ^t to be shifted 
xleartfr (ri^ fetter from the fire, 
M ^tetiMoii i-equircii 

1 bftte Ofdc^ed a small tin- 
1^1^ #hi«ll MAa in Ihree, and 
Wffi (3f(^|j^ only A Ifiiall space 
Wore the fire, which will greatly 
increase the heat when in use. I 
cannot g^ve a cut of it in the 
present edition^ as I httre not jrek 
reoeived the drawing. 




SOGER'S KITCHEN FOR THE ARMT. 

DcEina the period of the famine in Ireland, I took mth me ft portable 
kitchen, and erected It opposite the Rof a1 Barracks tn Dublin, and irlth 
which I cooked and delivered rations for !«,B0O persons dally. 

Having last year taken a peep at the oainp at Chobham, as well as the 
camp at Satoiy in France, and seeing, by the ordinafy manner In which 
the provisions for the different messes were cooked, even in France, that a 
large amount of aulriment of the food waa last.it occorred to toe tiiat, if a 
mOTCHble liitchen could be made to iravel with the army, it wonld be exceed- 
ingly useful, whilst on tha tnarch, or When encamped. 

The following is an eiplanatloh of the above kllohen; 

The CHTtlage Is made of sheet-iron, weighing, with water, fuel, &o., a 
little more than one ton. Tlie)owerpan consisls of a circatar steam boiler, 
and the upper part of an oven. Over the oyen are placed the rartons pans 
containing the rations required to he cooked by steam, and on eieh side la 
a banging shelf, which will also bold steam saucepans In ftonl, and round 
the driver's seat is a reservoir (brwaler,and a place to hold the condioients.lu;. 

The plan of working It wonld be to draw it near to a stream ortesertoir 
of water— if brackish or mUddy it does not matter*— there flU the bdlec 
■nd reservoir, and T'emove it tn any convenient spot. The fuel mar con- 
■ist of wood, coal, turf, kt. fte. 'Within one hour after the Bre Is lighted 
the steam would be up, and tile oven hot, and with one six Ifeet long and 
three i^et wide, rations fOr lOOD men could be cooked by baking and 
steaming in abOBt ttro hoilrs. and the apparatus moved on again, or it 

Ita advantages are, saving of time, labour, men, and food, and the cef* 
tainty that the men could get their food properly cooked. 
The cost of each apparataa Kould not exceed lOOZ. 

■ Aof tnlnteUwMuliitMdigoodbf fint conTertinflt UtVitMBi. 



INDEX. 



Bacon, observations on curing, p. 82 
Batter, 462 

„ for toad in the hole, 461 
Beans, see vegetables 
Beef, to choose at market p. 171 

„ i-la-mode, 191 

n plainer, 192 

„ cold, 166, 198 

„ aitch, or edgebone of, 78 

„ brisket, 78 

„ baking in stewpan, 224 

*„ Carthusian, 111 

„ collops, 169 

„ curry of, 159 

„ hashed, 158A 

„ leg of, 174 

„ minced, 156, 158, 239 

„ pudding, 233 — 235 

„ „ roast, 237, 238 

„ round of, 78 

„ ribs, salted, 78 

„ „ baked, p. 95 

„ semi-roasted, 207 

„ baked, p. 224 

„ salt, 78, 227 

„ skirt, 78 

„ „ No. 1, 234 

„ spiced, 226 

„ steak in baking-pan , 1 7 1 — 1 7 3 

„ „ to semi-fiTT, 136 — 139A 

„ „ pie, 262 

„ „ family, 268 

„ „ devilled, 118 

„ „ important remarks on, 
117 

„ stewed, 224 

„ ragout of, 188 

„ vegetables with, 175 

„ as bubble and squeak, 160 
Beverages, p. 168 
Biscuit balls, 458 

„ foreign, 400 
Boiling, p. 30 
Bones, devilled, 442 
Bread, on, 402 

„ brown, 406 



Bread, brown rye, 408 
cottage, 408 
crumb, 452 
keeping, 409 
milk, 404 

„ plainer, 405 
rice, 407 
toast, how to, 404 

Broiling, p. 17 

Brown stock, 3 



i* 



gravies, 4 



Browning, 453 
Butter : — 

Anchovy, 427 

Black, or burnt, 42 5 A 

Hotel-keepers, 426 

Melted, 410 

Eschalot, 118 

Cakes: — 
Almond, 324 
Apple, 392 
Bread apple, 396 
Cottage, 394, 331 
Cheese, 829 
Eccles, 395 

Gallette, poor man's, 332 
„ aristocratic, 330 
Gingerbread, 389 
Ginger, 388 
Milk, 394 
Orange, 324 
Plain, 398 
Flum, 385 

„ common, 886 
Preserve, 325 
Bice, 890 

„ plain, 401 

„ common, 391 

„ ground, 387 
Bock, 388A 
Soda, 399 
Spice, 393 
Sweet, 894 
Tipsy, 397 
Small cream, 826 



IKDEX. 



185 



Calf's bndng, 941 



«« 



» Jelly, 868 
„ head, 87 
„ heart, 125 

„ liver, semi-fHed, 147, 190 
„ and heart, 148 
heart, stewed, 180 
tails, 187 



ft 



f» 



*» 



n 



n tongue, head, ftc. pudding, 348 
Cheesecakes, 829 
Chemistry of food, p. 5 
Chickens, see Poultry 
Chopping of onions, 449 
Choice of meat, &c., p. 170 
Coffee, 466 

„ original hints on, 466 
Cold meats, 161, 166 
Crab, see Shell-fish, 
Cream, Bohemian, 356 
Devonshire, 448 
pastry, 8 87 A 
velvet, 871 

„ white, 857 
Croquettes, rice, 372 
Crust, 827 

Cottage roasting, p. 00 
Cookery, ignorance of the poor in, 

p. 40 
Currant-Jelly, 464b 
Curry, fish, 89 

M rabbit, 205 

w tripe, 165A 

„ lamb, 159 

„ meat, 159 
Custard, coffee and chocolate, 862 
fkrm, 865 
plain, 861 
pie-dish, in, 868 
gooseberry fool, 868 
Cutlets, see Lamb, Mutton, Veal 
Cheese stirabout, 98 
Carthusian of meat and vegetables, 

111—114 

Dinner, our Christmas, 85 

Dish, an improved leaking, p. 94 

Drinks: — 

Apple, &c., 467 — 472 

Dough, 840 

Dumplings, apple, 847a, 848 
lemon, 347 
nursery fruit, 828 
simple suet, 849 



f> 



M 



>f 



It 



n 



£<x»iOn,p. 115 



Eggs, to ascertain if fresh, 800 

„ ancients on, 801 

„ boiled, plain, 801 

„ boU, to, 802 

„ „ for toast, 808 

„ baked, 304 

„ bacon and, 807 

„ convent fashion, 808 

„ mixed, 806 

„ omelette, or fraise, 310 

w n with herbs, 811 

„ „ „ bacon, 812 

„ „ „ oysters and 

shell-fish, 818 
Eggs, omelette, sweet, 814 

„ „ preserves, 815 

„ „ spirit, 815A 

„ poached, 805 

„ sausages, 809 

Feet, calves, 87 
„ ox, 269 
„ pig's, 208 
„ sheep's, 88 
Fish : — 
How to boil all kinds, 21 
How to boil sliced, 55 
New way, 56 
To cook in oven, 59 
„ „ Lesson No. 1, 60 
Fried, Jewish fiuhion, 79 
Fresh-water, p. 28 
Fried, p. 26 

How to ascertain when done, p. 2 1 
Brill, 52 
Cod, 57 

„ Uver, 108— 110 

„ sounds and melt, 62, 66, 102 

„ hard roe, 101,68, 64 
Codlings, 222 
Conger eel, 61, 62, 66, 222 
Curry, 89 
Eels, dried, 49 

„ fresh, 50, 59 

„ fried, 71 

„ stewed, 98 — 100 
Flounders, 47 
Fritters, 161 
Gurnets, 67, 222 
HaUibut, 66, 222 

„ Jewish fashion, 75 
hi oU, 77 
Hake, 62, 66 
Haddock, 40, 62, 222 
Herring, red, 88 



188 



usCStXi 



It 



>i 



Jjingi 68« 68, 23d 
Mackerel, 42, 48^ 41, 49 

„ in biUdng 8teWptBli,229 
M in pie-dishy 69 
„ pidkled, 70 
Pilchard, 221 
Plaice, 60, 67, 74 
Salads, 440 
Salmon, salted, 48 

„ tceshi 54 
Salt, 57 

Smiill, to cook. 48 
Sauce, 45, 418 
Soles, 72, 73, 47 
Sprats, 221 
Tencb, 58 
Turbot, 58 
Whiting, 61 

In baking stew-pan, 218 
Pieces of in ditto, 219 
Eels ditto, 223 

Puddings, 256 

plainer, 257 
mackerel^ 258 
„ eel, 259 
Pies, 266 
Fritters, 161—168 
Pbuits : — 

„ damson, 884 
Apple, buttered, 388 
fritters, 881 
cake. 392, 396 
„ drinks, 467 — 9 
a rice waiter. 470 
„ stewed, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 884 
„ sauce, 414 
Blackberry pudding, 354 
Currant jell^, 46 4B 
Fruit frittett, 161—8 
Various, stewed, 384 
Frying, ok, p. 55 
„ pan, p. 48 
Fry, semi, 136 

„ Lessons on, 140, 141 

Game:— 
Hare toad in the hole, 218 

,1 jugged, 216 

„ „ marinaded, 217 

„ pie, 207 
Larks, 215 
Partridge and cabbage pudding, 

254 
Babbits, large Dutch, 204 
Babbit, aemi-roRS^di 212 



» 



n 



Babbit pudding, Sf51 
„ pie, 265 
„ boiIedfd4 
„ semi-fried, 1511 
„ curry, 205 
n plain broiled^ 908 
„ Bo<A:,yotilig, pudding, 

255 
Giblets, 26, 263, 
GHdiron, i^h«t I eto (sook wHh my. 

p. 17 

Haddocks, see Fish 

Ham, importiditobserrationgeil, 8 If 

82 
Herbs, sweet, bunch of, 451 

Imagination, effect of, f>. 68 
Irish stew, 183 

Iron pot, three-legged, introdiMtiM 
to, p. 29 

Jam, 464A 
Jelly, 464b 

„ isinglass aiid gelatine^ 888 

„ calf's-foot, 358 

„ orange, 359 

„ lemon, 860 

Kidneys, broiled, 184 

„ ox, 177 — 9 

„ pudding, 246 
Kitchen utensils, 176 

Lamb, p. 33 

„ boiled leg of^ 88 

„ chop, 126 

„ choice of, p. 171 

„ curry, 159 

„ fry, 149 

„ head, 115, 194 

„ heart, 125 

j, kidneys, 184 

„ leg, 194 

„ neck, 194 

„ roasted, semi, 210 

„ bakedj 282 

„ tongue, head, and feet pod- 
ding, 249 

„ roasting, time for, 281 
Larding, 450 
Liver, ox, 96, 244 

„ cod, 104-^9 

„ ditto tod ballS) 459, 470 

„ calves', 147, 148, 190, 244 



IHDHI. 



1ST 



Lirer stuffings 4S7 

ifackerel, see Fish 

Macaroni, 468 

Meats, a series of retfdptg (ta^ 

Marketing, on, p. 170 

Meal, Indian poulenta, 94 j 99 

M^at, boiled, ct>ld{ and bioil^i 180, 

226 

M curry, 159 

„ fHtters, 161, 162 

„ minced, 156,* 158 

,t .hftsbed, 158A 

„ remains of cold j 166 

„ puddlng8i2S3 

„ in baker's oven, p. 93 

„ toad in the hole, 315 

„ Carthusian, 111—114 
Mussell, 445, see Sauce 
Mushrooms, 443 
Mutton 

„ boiled, 81 

„ chops, 120< 121 

„ cutlets, 142 

„ choice of at mttrktft 

„ pudding, 247 

#, ragout Of, 97 A 
remains of, 168 
ragout, brown, of, 188 

„ roasted, semi, 208 

„ roasting, on, 2 80 j 283 

Omelettes, (see Eggs) 
Onions, to chop, 449 
Oren, baker's moat, p. 98 
Ox brains, 449 

„ cheek toad in the hole< 218 
„ feet, 86 

„ heart, 126, 177 179 
„ tail, 176 
„ kidneys, 177 
„ liver, 1st I>SSon on, 155 
„ tongue, potted and braized, 184 
„ fresh and pickled, 185 
tripe, curried, 165a 
„ pickled, 16^ 
„ Lyons way, 164 
„ toad in the bole, 165 
„ H sautedor s«mi-£ried, 165A, 
86 

Pancake, 380 
Paste, puff, 315b 

half, 816 

another, 8 16 A 
„ „ plainer, 817 I 



»» 



It 



>» 



n 



n 



»» 



n 



»» 



If 



Pa8te,~puff, 'short, 318 

„ pudding, 819 
Pastry, ON, p. 119 

Fruit, 320, 321, 828 

Plain puff, 323A 

Small, 322 

„ pudding, 454 

„ panada, 92 
Pickles, 465 

„ for hams, beef, 8to.i 62 
Pies, how to make, 126 

„ introduction, 126 

„ artisan's pie, 268 

„ „ beefsteiik, 262 

„ family, 263 

„ veal, 264 

„ pork, 264 

„ fishi 266 

„ hare, 267 

„ rabbit, 260 

N poor man's, 269 
Pigeons, see Yegetablei 
Pig's cheek 

„ feet, 208 

„ kidneys, 134, 146 

„ head, 250 

„ heart, 125,250, 180 

„ liver, 213 

M brain and tongue, 242 
Useful hints on the sttoking-pig, p. 

83, 173 
Plum, see Fruit 
Poached eggs, see Eggs 
Pork, to choose, p. 171 

„ with apples, 196, 197 

„ bladebone, 215 

„ chops, 145, 124 

„ curry, 159 

„ hashed, 158a 

„ leg, baked, p. 95 

„ pie, 264 

„ pudding, 250 

„ salt, 198 — 201 

„ toad in the hole, 215 

„ and beef, semi - Carthusian 
HI * 

„ pulse, 202 

„ boiled, 79 

„ sausages, 128 

„ black puddings^ 129 

„ sausages and kidneys, 146 

„ semi-roasted, 209 
Poultry, 160 

To choose, p. 173 

Chickens, 254 



IBS 



INDEX. 



Duckfl, p. 173 
Fowls, 85, 135, 151 
Fritters, 161 
Geese, p. 178 
Pigeons, 185, 152 
Turkey, boiled, 85 

„ roasted, 811 

„ semi-roasted, 211 
Boasting, 232 
Padding, 252, 253 
Puddings : — 
Observations on, 236 
Baked, 260 
Heat, on, 238 
Beef, 234 

„ with kidneys, 235 
Boast beef, 237, 238 
Hince beef, with eggs, 239 
Veal, 240 

Calves' brain and tongue, 241 
Sheeps', lambs', and pigs' do., 242 
Calves' head and tongue, 243 
Lamb, veal, and ox liver, 244 
IX). plainer, 245 
Liver and kidney, 246 
Mutton, 247 

Sheep's head, tongue, &c., 248 
Lamb, 249 
Pork, 250 
Babbit, 251 
Chicken, 252 
Pigeon, 253, 255 
Do. brown, 253 
Partridge and cabbage, 254 
Young rook, 255 
Ilsh, 256 
Do. plainer, 257 
Mackerel, 258 
Eel, 259 
Baked, 260 
Half-steamed, 261 
Important observations, 261 
Cloths, on, 261 
Sweet, p. 128 
Plum, 834 
Mould, 335 
Fruit, 335A 
Curd milk, 336 
Cocoa-nut, 337 
Plain rice, 338 
Spotted dick, 339 
Apple and paste, 841 
Suet, 342 
Bread, 848 
Brown bread, 344 
Bice, rermicelll, and maearoiid, ^\^ 



Broken biscuit, 344a 

For a large family and 8cho( 

346 
Bice and preserve, 350 
Ground rice, 851 
Handy, 353 
Young England, 854 
Bread, custard, yaiious ways, 8( 
Egg, 366 
Lemon, 373 
Potato, 375 

Dough, with apples, 876 
Yorkshire, 1st class, 225, 377 
„ 2d do., 878 

3d do., 879 



» 



Belishes : — 

Bones, devilled, 442, 181, 182 

Herring with whisky, 441 

Mushrooms, 443 

Mussells, 445 

Oysters on toast, 446 
„ scalloped, 447 

Babbit, Welsh, 441—444 
„ Irish, 447 

Scallops, 448 

Toast broiled and devilled, 183 
Babbits, see G«me 
Bice: — 

With apples, 350 

How to boil, 456 

Cakes, 390, 401, 387 

Bread, 406 

Croquettes, 372 

Preserve, 350 

Panada, 91 

Pudding, 351 

Savoury, 90 
Boasting, on, p. 88 

How to, p. 89 

Gas, p. 90 

Jack, see Appendix 

Time, 91 

Cottage, 90 

Semi, 207 

S All ADS, ON, p. 155 

Beans, French, 436 

„ Harico and lentil, 435A 
Beet-root, 436 
Brussels sprouts, 486 
Cabbage lettuce, 429 
Celery, 436 
Crab, 440 
Cucumber, 436 



\ 



INDEX. 



189 



Endive, 430 

French, 431 

Fish, 439, 440 

Lettuce, cobs, 428 

Marsh mallow, 432 

Meat, 438 

Mustard and cress, 433 

Onions, 436 

Potatoes, 437 

Poultry, 438 

Badish, 436 

Sauce, 434 

Vegetables for, 486 

Water cresses, 432 

Fruit, 369, 370 
Sauces : — 

Anchovy, 411 

Apple, 414 

Brown, 412 

Bread, 426a 

Caper, 411, 423 

Celery, 423 

Chili vinegar, 423 

Cod liver, 418 

Crab, 413 

Cream, 424 

Cucumber, 411 

Curry, 426B 

Egg, 425c 

Fennel, 426c 

Fish, 413 

Harvey's, 411 

Horse-radish, 416 

Hotel-keepers', 418 

Lobster, 413 

Melted butter, 1 and 2, 410 

Mint, 416 

Mustard, 426 

Mussell, 418 

Onion, 411, 422 

Oyster parsley, 418 
„ pickle, 411, 413 

Shrimp, 413 

Soyer's Belish, 411 
M Mustard, 411 

Sharp, 420 

Simple, 421 

Salad, 484 

Sage and onion, 411 

Spirit sauce, 417 

Vegetable marrow, 411 

White sauce, 413,419 
Soups : — 

American butter squash, 18 

Artichokes, Jerusalem, 8 

Autumn, 28 



Carrot, 9 
„ red, 22 
„ white, 22 
Cock-a-leekie, 23 

„ „ new, 28 
Cow-heel, 16 
Giblet, 26 
Hare, 27, 28 
Hodge-podge, 26 
Meagre, 19 
Meat, various, 26 
Macaroni, 10 
Mock turtle, 14 
Mutton broth, new, 32 
Mulligatawny, 31 
Ox-cheek, 38 
Ox-tail, 39 
Ox-cheek in pan, 35 
Ox-tail „ 34 
Pea, cheap, 36 

„ meagre, 39 
Pot-au-feu, French, 97 
Pumpkin, 18 
Parsnip, 22 
Potato, 83 
Rice, 11 
Semolina, 12 
Spring, 23 
Swedes, 22 
Stock for, 1 

„ simplified, 1 
Turnip, 21 
Tapioca, 12 
Turnip, clear, 7 
Vegetable, clear, 6 
6 
thick, or pur^e, 17 
„ marrow, 20 
Vermicelli, 10, 164 
White, with vegetables, 16 
„ meat, 18 

Sheep's brains, 181 
feet, 88 
head, 11, 116 
heart, 180 

tongue and brain pudding, 
242 
Stewpan, baking, p. 69 
Stock for soups, 1 

„ simplified „ 2 
Stufl^g, cod-liver, 469 
liver, 467 
veal, 466 






n 
t* 
n 



it 



Tarts, plain, 838 



i 



190 



UfSKK. 



Toast, broiled and devilled, 188 


Cabbage, stewed, 337 


Toad in the hole. No. 1, 215 


„ red, pickled, 466 


No. 2, potatoes, 


Cauliflower, 292 


No. 3, peas, 


„ with cheese sauce, 2i 


No. 4, cooked meat, 


Celery, 284 


No. 5, calfs brains. 


Greens, cabbage, 285 


No. 6, larks and sparrows. 


„ spring, 286 


No. 7, ox-cheek. 


„ thousand heads, 393 


No. 8, rabbit, 


Haricots, 394, 296 


No. 9, hare. 


Kail, 293 


No. 10, pork, 


Lentils, 294, 295 


No. 11, „ salt. 


Nettles, 296 




Peas, green, 289 


Veal, boiled, 80 


„ large dry, 297 


„ outlets, 128, 148, Ui 


Potatoes, on, 270 


„ chops, 122 


„ boiled, 271 


„ cutlets for the aged, 170 


„ how to choosy, 370 


„ choice of, 170 


„ new, 272 


„ le^of baked, 186 


„ baked, 273 


„ remains of, 168 


„ with sausage, or St^et* 


„ ragout of, 188 


274 


„ stuffing, 456 


„ mashed, 276 


„ filletof, 189, 233 


„ new, roaste4, 376 


„ baking stew-pan, in, 214 


„ fried, 298 


„ roasting, time for, p. 91 


„ fried cooked, 8^9 


„ pie, 2G4 


„ pudding, 376 


„ pudding, 241 


Parsnip, 281 


Vegetables, on the selection pf, p. 1 76 


Sea kale, 284 


Artichokes, Jerusalem, 277 


Spinach, 288 


„ with cheese eajice, 293 


Savoys, 285,287 


Asparagus, 283 


Sprouts, 286 


„ spread, 283 


„ Brussels, 393 


Beans, broad, 290 


Sweet docks, 296A 


„ Windsor, 290 


Swedes, 279 


„ French and kidnjejr, 391 




Beet, red and white, 282 


Thousand heads, 298 


BrocoU, 393 


Turnips, 278, 286 


„ with cheese sauce, 293 




Carrots, 280 


Vegetables for salada, 496 


„ Vhite, 381 


„ „ pudding, 114 



THE ^D. 



BANE OF DEPOSIT, 

3, PALL MALL EAST, 

AND 

7, ST. MARTINIS PLAGE, TKAFALGAR SQUARE, 

LONDON. 

CAPITAL^TTO^ir £100,000. 

THIS ASSOCLA^TION is composed of two distinct 
and separate branches : the one comprising the business of a 
Bank of Deposit for Investment of Capital ; the other, the ordinary 
transactions of Life Assurance. 

Bankingr Department. 

The object of this Department is to afford a safe and easy mode of 
Investment, which secures equal advantages to the Savings of the 
Provident and the Capital of the Affluent, and to effect important 
improvements in the present system of Monetary economy, ooth as 
regards the security afforded to the Public and the rate of Interest 
realized. 

The plan of this Assocication differs materially from tliat of ordinary 
Banks in the mode of investing Capital — ultimate profit and security 
being the main objects regarded, the Board of Management principally 
employ their Funds in Loans upon vested Life Interests, and other 
similar securities, and in the purchase of well-secured lieversions, a 
class of securities offered almost daily to Life Assurance Companies, 
which, although no|i in^roediately convertible, it is well known yields 
the greatest amount of profit, combined with the tnost perfect safety. 

Investment Aooounta. 

Money is received daily at the Head Office between the hours of 
Ten and Four o'clock, where Forms of Application may be obtained. 
Parties desirous of opening Investment Accounts, may do so with 
capital of any amount, whioh may be increased from time to time, 
at the convenience of Depositors. 

A Stock Toucher, signed by two Directors^ is given for each sum 
deposited. 

INTEREST PAYABLE IS JANIf ART AVB JTJLT. 

PETEE MORRISON, Managing Directs. 

National JlssusAirca Aim IvvsennirT Associaviov, 
7, St, Mariin'i Flaee, Ttf^algwr Square, London, 

$^ Prospectuses and Forms of Proposal for Assurance, and of 
Application for Investment Stock, will be forwarded, post free ; and 
every requisite Information may be obtained either at the Head 
Offices of the Association, or at the various Braocbes and Agenciea 
throughout the United King4Qzu« 

\ 



JAMES Campbell, 

WIVE MEBCHAVT, 

158, EEGENT STREET & BORDEAUX. 



CASH PRICES FOB 1854. 



BOTTLES AND CASES INCLUDED. 

per Dozen. 

Vin de Bordeaux 28s. 

St. Julien SOs. 

LaBose 86s. 

Haut Brion, St. Emilion, 

&c 42s. & 488. 

Lafitte and Chateau Mar- 

gaux 66s. to 80s. 

WHITE WINES OF FBANGE. 

BOTTLES AND OASES INCLUDED. 

Vin de Grave 28s. 



Barsac 

Sauteme 

Chablis 



• « • • a 



28s. 

28s. to 48b. 
80s. to 36s. 



CBAXUPAOirS. 

Perrier, Joilet, &c. 48s. to 54s. 
&608. 

Clicquot's, dry 72s. 

Ditto, same as sent to Bussia 72s. 

Bocx iursi mosEi^XiS. 

Hock, Hockheim 868. 

Ditto, Neirstein 48s. 

Ditto, Rudesheim, Johan- 
nisberg, Steinberg, &c. 

60s. to 80s. 
Ditto, sparkling ... 60s. to 72s. 
Moselle, sparkling 60s. to 72s. 



PORT. 

per Dozen. 

Port, from the wood 80s.- & 36s. 

Ditto, crusted 42s. 

Ditto, five to ten years in 
bottle 488. to 60s. 



Sherry, pale and golden ... 80s. 
Ditto, ditto ... 36s. 

Ditto, ditto, reiy fine 

428. & 48s. 
Ditto, the Brand C.Z., old 
bottle, very choice 54b. & 608. 

MABBZRJL. 

Madeira, direct ... 42s. & 450. 
Ditto, fine old East India 

608. to 84s. 

BVCB&XiA8»«^e. 

Bucellas, first quality ... 368. 

Marsala 268. 

Lisbon, rich SOs. 

Carcavellos .... 86s. 



Hennesp/s Old Pftle 
Brandy 60s. 

Campbell's 7 years old 
Glenlivat Whisky 400. 



The Lsjgesh Stock of HENNESSY'S PALE BRANDY aad OH 
GLENLIVAT WBISKX la England. 



ROYAL 

FiNOPTIGON OF SCIENCE AND ART, 

LEICESTER SQUARE. 

oPBir DAzzi-r raoM 12 to 5. 

Evenings (Saturdays excepted) from 7 to 10. 

ADMISSION, l8. SAT1TRDATS, 28. 6d. 



GREAT ORGAN, LECTURES, 

MACKurBa-r zir actzoit, 

ELECTRICITY, &c. &o. &o. 
PHOTOGRAPHIC DEPARTMENT OPEN DAILY. 




will be found speedily to reanimate the epirits, improve the digestiTe powers, and 
restore the whole nervous system to a nappy and natural state; the balsamic 
powers of this medicine produce that delightful feeling of good spirits so very de* 
sirible, and dispose both mind and body to healthy exercise; everything under its 
inflnenoe soon wears a joyous aspect, and the varied duties of life are performed 
with pleasure; and, instead of long and weary nights, give sound and refreshing 
sleep. If the stomach and bowels require it. Pabb's Livb Pills act as the mildest 
and most agreeable purgative, and by their cleansing powers totally eradicate a 
redundancy of bile. — — 

TO t«A.DIE8.— Parr's Life Pills are especially efficacious in all the raricty of ailments 
inaidental to the Fair 8cx. Ladies even of the moiit delicate constitutions will find them 
particttlarly beneficial both before and after confinement : and for general use in Schools 
thKf cannot be too strongly recommended. They mildly and speedily remove all Skin 
Bmptions, Sallownesa of complexion, Nervous Irritability, Sick Head-ache, Depression of 
Spints, Irregularity, or General Derangement of the System. 

Testimony of an Eminent Chemist in favour qf FARR*S LIFE PILLS, 

GENTLEMEN,— At the request of several friends, who hare introduced Parr's Lifis 
puis into their ftmilies as a medicine^ I have submitted them to a strict ch^nical analysis, 
in ordeivto ascertain whether they contained any of those, active mercurial and other 
mineral preparations now so commonly introduced into many advertised medicines. I 
beg to say that I find them worthy of being recommended to the public for their great 
efficacy and simplicity, and, as stated by the Proprietors, to be really vegetable pills, con- 
taining, at they do, nothing but what is of vegetable origin. I am. Gentlemen, 

Your obedient servant, JOHN DALE, Analytical Chemist, Manchester. 

BEWABJB OF SPURIOUS IMITATIONS.— None are Genuine, unless the words 
"PARR'S LIFE PILLS" are in white letters on a red ground, on the Government 
8taau», pasted round each box ; also, the ffic-simile of the signature of the Proprietors, 
*'T. ROBERTS and Co., Crane-COurt, Fleet-street, London," on the Directions. 

Sold in boxes, at Is. i ^d., 2s. 9d., and fiunily packets at lis. each. Full directions are 
given with each box. 

Sold by E. EDWARDS, 67. St. Paul's Churchyard; BARCLAY and SONS, Farringdon* 
street ; SUTTON and Co., Bow Churchyard : HANNAY and Co., 63, and SANGER, 150, 
Oxford-street, London ; and by all respectable Chemists and Medicine Vendors in Town 
and Country. 



HOTEL DE PBOVEKCE, 

18, LEICESTER SQUASB, 



RESTAURANT A LA CARTE AT PARIS PRV^. 

cnisnrE YRAnqAiSE et rrAUEimE. 



DZHIHO BOOKS FOB PABTEBB. 



CHOIOS WINES AKD 8PIBIT& 



mKBamammmsm 



SABLONIEBE HOTEL, 

so, LEICESTER SQUARE, 



HOTEL AND RESTAURANT. 



■^^■•■^^i^** 



n»hh cCmu in tks OimHnentml 8fyk, ai Sim ffOMh ^ 
which Ladies and JFamiHes eon im$% 



THE PERFECT SXJBSTITTJTE FOR SILVER. — 
THE BEAL NICKEL BILVBB, intapoduoed twenty yearn 
igo hv WTTJJAM 8. BUBION. wli«a plstod by the patent pro- 
oeat of MeMra. Xlkiiigtoii aad Oo.^ m btymn all oompaiiBon the very 
beat artiela mhI t» iteifinff (rihar that cm ba ampkiyed aa sud^ 
eithiiiMfaqfa»€auninlfil|y»M iQfaD po«iU* laat can It be dia- 
tingaiBhed from iwl dtftr, 

TTircwid or 
fl«l» Mnatrnkk King's 

filMn. MfeHrn. Pattenu 

zvaaiiacaiiiPC09aHi m* ••• «•« *ai u ••• ••• Shu ••* m*- sss* 



J^OTB0^* i^POOOB ff ••• ••• ••■ ••• WW« ••• ••• VHM* ••• ••( 4Cf8a 

X vDtO f VW9 yy *•• ••• •«• ••• Wm* ••• ••• Ovv> ••• ••• Ov0* 



Tnk aad Qofibe aeia, waitara, oandleatidu, fto., At pn>portional» 
pilBati Attkindiofre-platbgdoiwbiythe^testpRMSVii. 

OWKMTCklXX 7988 SBSBL HOT TSJiTMD. 

Viddto. nnad. Kli«f^ 

TliMa8pMaiaBdrocla»fli]\fiM^p«dos«i ^ Ut. ^ Mi. .m 30i. 

DtMMt dlMo tnd dittQ .«. ... «.« *.. lOi. ... Sli* ... S5s. 

xva cDoo ••• •.• •.* •»• .•• ••« ••« •.« •«• wk M* ua* ••• 



CUTLERY WARRANTED.— The most VBried As- 
aortment of TABLE CUTLE&Y in the world, all warranted, 
ia on SALE at WILLIAM 8. BUBTON'S, at prioea that aro 
nmxumnJ&w only because of the largenen of the salaB. Sl-inok 
iDOfy-handkd table kniyei, with high ahonlden^ lis. per doasen; 
daastiti to match, 10a.; if to balance. Is. per doxen extra ; carvers^ 
4a.p«rpair; laigeriises, from 148. 6d. to26s.perdoaen; extra&M^ 
imj, i2B, ; if with sihrer farmles, 87s. to ffOs.; white bone taUa- 
kaives^ 7s. 6d. per doxen ; dssserts, ffs. 6d. ; canrers, 28. Sd. per 
pair ; black bom table knives^ 78. id. per dosen ; desserts, it,;, 
carvers, 28. 6d.; black wood-huidled table-knives and forks, Sb, per 
doaen ; table steels, from Is. eadi. The largest stock in ezistenca 
of plated dessert knivea and iodk% in oasea aiMl otherwise, and of the 
saw plated fish carvers. Also » large assortment of Basors, Pen- 
knives SciBBon^ Ac. of the bestqnalugr* 

WILLIAM a BUBTON has TEN LABGE SHOW BOOMS 
bJl cowunnnioatinri, exdnfive of the Shop, devoted solely to th» 
show of OJINEBAL FURNI8HINO IBCA^MONGBBY, ^dnd* 
ing Cdtlayt mbkel Silver, Plated and Japanned Warea, Lmn and 
Bnss Bedsteads), so arranged and dassined that purchasers may 
easily and at onee maka thsv aaleotknis* 

OatalogiiM^ witii Engravings, sent {pot pool} fine. The moneiy 
vetnratd for ^nrj artiolo not appsoved ot 

89, OXFOBIX-STREBT (oomer of Kewman-atree^ Nos. 1, 2;. 
and 8, NEWMAK-STBBKr, and 4 and 0, PBBBT*S-PLAC£^ 
BstabUshed A.D. 1820. 

6 




CBOSSE AND BLACEWSLL, 

PURVEY0K8 IN ORDINABT TO HER MAJESTY, 

RESPECTFTJLLr invite attention to the followmg 
RICH aiUCES and CONDIMENTS, wHoh with Uw nrioia 
other ddicacies they have formany jeara enjoyed lobigh a preferaioe 
for, cafibe obtained of moat reapect&ble Sauce YeodorB siid Ilaliu 
Warehonaemen in tiie United fijDgdoin,' and ti iha piuici|ial Stont 
throughout the world. 

Boyal Table Sauce. 

A new Bsuce, of a peculiadj delicioiu and piquant flsTOOi^ fit«t 
introduced in 1847. It has leceived univeraal oonuneodation ten) 
Gie beat jodgee, and ix in very genets] use at the tables of the 
nobility, and the prindpal clnbe. To Oioaa who prefer a rich wann 
sauce, it may be confidentJy reconmnnded M the best erer jet jao- 
duced. Sold in bottlea, at 1b. 6d. and 2s. 6d. each ; and in hand- 
iome China yaaes, to be placed on the table, at 8s. each. 

Soho Sanoe. 

The flattering receplioii this Sauce has met with from liienlMf.&- 
tinguisbed epicures, varrailts the proprietoTS in recomnendidg'it M 
the beat of its kind extant It is composed of a variety of ingiedJaot^ 
which ara all bo thoroughly amalgamated Uiat, 'nhile its piquancy is 
eitiaordiiiaiy, no decided flavolir can be said to predominata. For 
fish, game, alaaks, and made dishes, this is a most desirable sauce. 

Basence of Anchovies, . 

To prodnce this well known and juatly esteemed Sauce, C. and B. 
me none but the finest picked Gorgona Anchovies, of which Ihey 
BDiiually import Urge Buppliee for this eiprees purpose. It is neoM- 
saiy to state thia, as the tact ia notorious that much of (he nuoB 
vended under this name is made &om Sardines, and au inferior de- 

' icriptiOD of Sicilian fish, against which punihaien caoDOt be too 

otnctly oxi their guard. 



CBOSSS AND 3LACKWSLL {eviOkmd^ 

Dtamiore's ■sscmoe of Shrimps. 

This Sanoe !• iMod fiir tbe same . puposes as tiie Essence of 
Anchovies, but beinff coEuddiBiubly milder, is preferred b^ many. It 
is prepared by G. ana B. ai thinr spedal factory- on the seaHX>ast, and 
the true fbYoor of the shrimp being retained, the Sanoe is rendered 
most daBdoos. 

It is an excellent rdish -with boiled and fried fish of every descrip- 
tion. 

Sir Robert Peel^s Sauoe^ 

70B OENXBAL FUBPOBBS. 

Each bottle is labelled with a fdC'HmUe of the Bight Honourable 
BaroneVs letter of approval. 

Strasbourg Potted Meats. 

This delicions preparation far surpasses every description of Potted 
Meat yet introduced to public notice ; the flavour is frill and rich, at 
the same time being so mild and bland, that the most delicate and 
£Mitidious palate is pleased. It is also very easy of digestion, and 
adapted to weak stomachs. 

Calves^ Feet Jellies. 

% 

Consisting of Orange, Iiemon, Noyau, Punch, Madeira, and Calf s 
Poot. These are soM in convenient sized bottles, and their use is 
attended with a great savins of trouble and inconvenience ; besides 
which, they ensure the certamty of the Jelly always being of uniform 
exoeflence and flavour. 

They are now in almost duly consumption in many frunilies, and 
are very highly approved. 

PioUes 

OV ALIi DBBOBIPnOKSt 

The superiority of these is too well-known and appreciated to need 
any remiHky 

Fmlts 

IK BOTTLBS. 

Preserved ]pWft for Tsrts ; aviuiable when firesh finiits are not in 
season. 



CBOSSE AND BLACKWSLI. (cmfmmtdj. 

Bynips 

09 TABIOUS KimoS, VOB V]:.^TOUXnrG XdS ; 

Or wfaidi, if dilated ivith iced or spring water, produce tk oool end 
gefrediing beTerage. 

' C and B. are also agents ftr tlie tiiXkmiag, made by Momiear 
80TEB:— 

^8076X^8 Aromatic Kostard.^ 

A most exquisite combination of the genuine Mustard seed with 
wMions aromatio substances: infinitelj superior to aU other prepara- 
tions of Mustard. 

Soger's Hew Sauoeat 

One of a mild description £ar the ladies^ and another of the tme 
Ihnrafar, but wanner, for gen t le m en. 

Beyer's Relisb. 

lE^ih referenoe to this fiaaoe^ the Ob s et v er remarks : — 

'M. Soyer is a cnlinazy artist as profound as he is Tersatfle; 
nothing comes amiss to bun. Ko fordgn eumnier ever ^dijed the 
&3Lon palate so successfully. He is a great man ; and the SI-ooolDBd 
miatton chops that lost NMoleon the battie of heanAc, wdidd hft've 
vroduoed a very different eifect if Soyer had dished them 1^ in & 
jCagic Stove, and rendered them thoroughly li^t and iSgieMAti by 
Sis appetizing BeHsh.' 

C. and B. consider it important to state, that the whole of their 
ananu&ctures are prepared with the most scrupulous attention to 
cleanliness and purity. The utmost precaution is taken in every in- 
stance to prevent contact withoopper, er any other pemidoiis metal; 
«iid to ensure this end. they have at a gnai expense fitted thefar Am:- 
^ry at £k)ho Square with a number of Earthenware Sbdam-'iMm^ and 
in addition have had a large Silver pan mad^ in whii^-to- p rs par e 
4be most delicate of their produotions. 



8 



'WHOLBSAXiE WABEHOXJSB-* 

21, SOHO S(^\IAB£, LONBOK. 



ROTAZ. HOTBZ.^ 

LATB J^^^fi^pL Opposite thi 

WOODMAN, .^CSBmI^!. PisLio BuiLDiMoa, 

INIAITD BEVENVE OFFICE, 
WOOD STREET, WAKEFIELD. 

CONDUCTED BT 

GEORGE WARRINER. 

DiKKEBS, Soups, Steaks, Chops, etc., at ant Houb of the Dat, 

Commercial Gentlemen tnU find every comfort and attention 

they can deiire. 
Private Families supplied at moderate charges with the best Wines 

and Spirits as used at the Hotel. 

•tabltttt fto Titty Xonesv Jboof« Boxes, mitf XioekHBy' 

Coaob Bouses. 

\* Servants charged in the £iU» 
N.B. — Omnibuses to and prom evebt Train. 
The Wakefield Steak, mentioned at page 94, is cooked in perfec- 
tion at this House. 



I i ■!■#>*># 



How to Furnish a House and Make it a Home, 

36, BOAE LANE, LEEDS. 

WRIGHT has the best selected STOCK of STOVES, 
suitable for Dining, Drawing, Breakfast, Study, and Lodging 
Booms, with Venders and lire Irons to oorrespmid* 

- WbI6HT*s superior Shower Bath^ Slipper, Dsg, Hip, And Sponging 
Baths, and Baths of every Description, comprising all recent Improve- 
m^;^ Qsrdei&BoU«n,(kMenEi«glii«i^HortleitttunaToca%8(7^ 
Shears, Syringes, Garden Chairs, and evenr requisite in general for 
the Oarden or Pleasure Ground. French Moderator Lamps with fine 
Oil. Brass and Iron Bedsteads. Tea 4nd Ooffee Urns, Feroolators 
and Machines of new and elegant Designs, combining all the recent 
French and En^sh Patents. Papier liach^ Tea Trays and Waiters. 
TaUe Outlery, Plated Wares, Patent Dish Covers^ and ereiy ArtMs 
for the Kitchen. Iron Mantel Heoes of Chaste Patterns. Bsin* 
water Pipe sad Spotting. 

*•* Eif4r0 ArtkU Sold 0i» tke mott teMombie Ttrmt, 

SBiitli*s Werkf Bell BMifftng, 4L "Wire Worklnff, 

In ftU their BnUMhM. 

VOEBIQH MERCHANTS' A^ EMIGRANTS' 0BDBB8 

Ezeottted with Promptness. 

8u(h4KitchtnCfraie{nda0yuteat'W'RlOnT&, y^hiuoieaMdSaM 
Inwmnger^ WanhouMf 86, Boar liane, Leeds. 



COFFEE. 



TO HEADS OP FAMILIES, PROPEIETOES AND 
DIRECTORS OF SCHOOLS, INFIRMARIES, 

HOSPITALS, 
AND OTHER PUBLIC ESTABLISHMENTS; 

Hetol-Keepen, Travellen, Captains in fhe Mmha^t 
Service and of Emigrant Ships; 

AJSrp ALL WHO ABE DESIBOUS Or PBOCUBINQ 

Tbe Finest Quality of Coffee^ 

EITHEB AS AN ABTICLE OF LUXUBY OB FOB EYEKY-DAY USE, 

AND THE MOST COFFEE FOE THEIE MONEY; 

WHITE, FAIROHILD, & OO.'S 

TURKEY COFFEE, 

TTAYING stood the test of many years' trial, is now 
-■"*• confessedly the only Preparation, unadulterated, 
which combines the rich oleaginous portion of the Coffee 
berry along with its more solid particles. It is declared 
by eminent Members of the Faculty, and others, to be the 
|nost delicious in flavour — ^the most nutritive, comfort* 

« 

Ing, and eoonomieal in its use, — of any Coffee evjsr sold. 
10 



WHIT£, FAIKGHILD, ft Co. {coniitmed.) 

As a test of this statement, tlie7 offer a BEW AED of 

ONE THOUSAND POUNDS 

to any one who can discover the SLIGHTEST ADUli* 
TERATION in their 

GENUINB PATENT 

Concentrated Turkey Coffeet 

The extraordinary success which has attended the in* 
troduction of these justly celebrated Coffees^ has raised a 
host of clumsy imitators, who for the sake of immediate 
gain, stick at nothing in the shape of Piracy and Fraud. 
The Patentees* labels and bills have been closely copied 
and circulated to a great extent, and every effort made to 
trap the unwary, 

WHITE, FAIRCHILD, is CO., beg therefore to 
caution the Public against purchasing Coffee otherwise 
than of their respective AgentfiH^ 

WHITE, FAntGHILD, & CO., 

Patntteetf, 

BOROUOBv ZiOVDOV, 

LICENSORS FOR ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, WALES,. 
THE CHANNEL ISLANDS, AND 
THE COLONKEB, 



MANUFACTORY : 
107, 108, 109, and UO, BOBOTOH, LOHDOir. 




D E A N E • S, 

LONIION BBICQE, 

CUTLERY, ntONUOHQESr, ASO rOBNISHING 
^ WAREHOUSE. 

KBTABLI8HXD A.D. 1700. 



Da^awB TABLS auraacr 

n tlun 150 yau4 notltni extcniiTS and mcieasuuF puUio pkto 

itock. comuiuliiE Ivor;, Bone, Horn, and St^ KmiUm, «t« 

i the prices are ttie loweat, and the qiuli^ 

Deaue'i Monoment BMon, »ad LcodoD Bridge Bbt^ia, an pnftarad by 
est jadsei to anj other. Their Pen and Pocket Knnea, 6d. Mc^ and opnar 
k/ Xm&p' AdKn <f tw; (Unl^oa, ir* an of fbi flMA qtwUt?. 



BBAKE, DBAT, AKD Ca, LONDON BBIDGX {tmUmuO.) 

ELEGTSO-SILYERED DEANEAN PLATE. 

I Hue beaatif ul manufaoture is celebrated for its peculiar pnritr^ and 
i ^Stwmf whiieneeB ; and ae aaabstitate for nlver (from which it cannot^ 
; ; liijr avf teit, be dietmguiBhed), u uoauipaased. 
: XmANli, DRAY, and GO. have alwaya on lale TaUoMd T)en&rt 
.-: fi^oona and Foi^, in aU the nevrast and moat wpproted silver 
pattMw; alao Tea and Coffee Sete^ Idqnenr-etanda, Orneti, Oandls* 
,^;; -irikiki, CUce-baakete, and eveiy article usually produced in ntrer. 

DBAWINO-BOOH STOVES. 

K .' Alugt and handsome ooUeotion of BRIGHT STOVES^ for th« 
.I)llisvinffar Dinin^xoom, embracing aU the newest dflsigns, is always 

[>■ fh 6AUB> in the Stoye and Fender Department of Deane^ I^y> *nd 
Ooili Bstahlishment. They have applied to these and other classes cf 
Bes^Mer Stoves patented improvements, economising the ccmsom^ion 
of rael, for which the highest testimonii^ have been given. DEl^J^B^ 
PfiAY, and 00. also invite attention to their improved COOKING 
STOVE, adapted for Gentlemen's Mansions and all laige Establish- 
inanis, with Kitchen Banges of the best construction. In FENDERS 
•ad FIRE-IRONS they are constantly introdndng every novel^i at 
Ihe lowest posiible prices. 

ntON BEDSTEADS A CHILDREN'S COTS. 

DEANls DRAY, and CO. manu&otureand supply evervdescrip* 
tion of IRON and BRASS BEDSTEADI^ and have at all times a 
large Stock of these Articles on handy together vnth Beds, Mattresses, 
Paillasses, Ac Priced Lists^ with Drawiogs, sent^ by post^ free. 

FAMILIES FUSNISHING 

May obtain, post free, on application, DEANE^ DRAY, and GO.*S 
GENERAL FURNISHING PRICE LIST, enumerating more 
than 500 articles selected from the various departments « tiisfr 
EstabUshment, requisite in fitting up a Family Residence, including 
Table CnUeiy, Electro-Plate, L«mp!« Pa]^ ier-mach^ Trayi, Fenders 
and Sire-irons, Iron Bedsteads , Britannia Metal, Iln and J^wn 
Ware, Tumeiy, Brushes, Mats, &c. &c 



DEANE, DKAY, AND CO. 

(OFEKma TO THE MONUMENT,) 

LONDON BBIBOE 



vt 



N 



EW EQUITABLE ASSURANCE COMPANY 

(Inoorponiled bj Act of Parfiament, f toad. 8 Yio. ^p. 110.) 

Capital, £100,000. 

TRTJfinBEL 
BIB JAMES DUEB, Bart. Aid. M.P. I BIB CHAS. HABTmGS, k.D., D.C.L. 
WIIiLM. FBBOUSSON, Baq, F.B.S. | GEOBGB J. OUTHBIB, Baq. F.B.S.J 

DIRBCTOBS. 
BIB CHABLE8 HASTINGS, M.D., D.C.L., Chttnmm. 
OBOBGB BBAHAN, Esq., F.B.C.8.» Dm^-Cbainmai. 



Qeorgfi Chapman, Esq. 
T. BeTan Jonea, Esq. 
Banmel HigUey, Esq. 



Samnel Bichards, M.D. Thmnaa WaUer, Eaq. 
John Craoe Steroia, Eaq. H. Membnrr WaUer. Eaa, 
W. Tyler Smith, M.I>. John Weit<m, Baq. 



OONBULTUfa PHTBIOIAKB. 
HanhaUHaIl,H.D.,F3.S.|C.J.B.Wimam8,K.D.,FJL8.)W,T3rlerSmikh,MJ>, 

CONBULTINa SUXGIONS. 
Wm.Fergnaaon,E8q.F.B.S. | J. B anald M a rt in, Eaq.F.B.8. | S.SoIlj,B8q.FJB.S, 

Surgeon and Medical Examiner---'TbiOa, Wakley, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

Standing Cmmsd — Sir Alexander Cockbum, M.P., Her Mj^esty's 
Attorney-General ; George Woodyatt Hasiingi, Esq. 

iSioJtct^or*-— Messrs. B^ Steward, and Lloyd, 59, lincoln's-inn* 
fields. 

WORCESTEB CITY AND COUNTY BOAIO). 

Offices — Savings Bank, Woroester. 

Directors — Sir Cliaries Hastings, M.D., D.C.L., Churman of the 
Metropolitan Board ; Jonas Maiden, M.I)., Senior Physician to the 
Worcester Genwal Infirmary ; J, W. Lea, Bsq., Woroester. 
SoUeUor—MK^ Onrtler, ^. | 4g«'^ oiut aterttarf- - T homm Weaton, Eaq. 

Policies IndispntaUe. Mutofd Assurance. Policies payable to 
the assured themselyes. All descriptions of Life Assurance business 
transacted, and erery facility giTon for payment of Plremium. An- 
nuities and Endowments granted. 
' No entrance fees, and sdl medical fees paid by the Directors. 

Prospectuses, Forms for Proposali, and furtiier infermatioii, may 
be had at «ther Office, or of the Company's agents. 

H. MEMBUBY WAKLEY, JReHdifU Dwedor. 
JOHN THOMPSON, Secretary. 

449, Strand, Charing-cross. 

OGG'S DAGUERREAN PORTRAIT GALLERY, 

432, WEST STRAND (five doors East of the Lowther Ar- 
cade). — The above Galleiy embraces a Collection of original Portraits 
of eminent men. Glass Kooms adapted for the purpose are erected^ 
which give him many advantages over other operatora generally. Mr. 
Hogg begs to draw tide attention of the public to the fact, that his re- 
sources and long experience ensure the hi^iest-dass pictures, not to 
be equalled in the Daguerrean art, while Uie arrangement of chai^g^ 
places tbem within the reach of all. Every picture guaranteed per- 
manent. Sunshine not required. 

SoAfJI OF Pkiobs (including Frame or Morocco Case.) 



Fust Size. 


Second Size 


Third Size. 


Fourth Size. 


Fifth Sise, 


£ f. d. 


Ji 8, d. 


£ f. d. 


£ f. c^. 


£ $. d. 


10 6 


p la 


110 


1 10 


2 2 



H 



GARDNER'S LAMPS 

ARE THE BEST. 

EVERY TASTE MAY BE SUITED FOB BEAUTY 
OF DESIGN AHD L0WHE8S OF PBICE. 

THB PRXZB 

. WAS AWABDSD TO HESSIIS. QAHDNEBa* 

IT THE 

GREAT EXHIBITION, 1861. 




BY BPEOIAL AXtOlSTKEST TO TSE ftUZEH. 



UMP AND CUT TABLE BUSS MANUFACTORY, 

ESTABLISHED UPWAEDS OF lOO YEARS. 
453, WB8T STRAXm, 

mXT DOOX TO T&I "aOLl>BlT CKOSB," AITS 

63, STRAND, 

XDIOIHIXa OOUTTS' SIHK. 



GAS FITTED ON THE SHORTEST NOTICE. 



B^oienoed Workmen Best to all parti of tbe Coantrr. 



WORKS BY M< A« SOYER. 



nriw Ua., tiw {fixtb Bditim of Ike 

GASTRONOMIC REGENERATOR: 

AM MTmifcT SMV 

SYSTEM OF COOKERY, 

lOfK XBABftT 

TWO THOVSu&ND FSAOTiaAL BBCSIFXS;^ 

lUiittnted with nnmerooB JSiDgnfinffi, and oonreoi uul nmnite dffui 
hov KitdMBt of cffwy fliai, firM» tU EHclMa of « B^ 
that of the humble Cottage, Are to be conatracted and fiamkihad 



OV 

SOYER*S MODERN HOUSEWIFE, 

AK SNTIB1I>T XntW, XMXUUBtaXD, AND. 

ILLUSTRATBD KDITIOK, 

FrieefK6d. 

''Ail who haTe food to oook ahould \mj this booIt."--ifonMK^ 
ChrpwUU, 



Lately ahN> Pabliahed, IVSoe U. la. 

THE PANTROPHEON; 

OB, 

HISTOBY OF FOOD AND ITS FBBPiJB^TIQN 

FBOM THE EABUSST AGSS OF THE WORLD. 



LONDON : 
SIMFKIN, MARSHALL, k CO^ fiTATIOl^BBS* BALL GOUBT. 
16 



Th» WatoraX WIom mtVrtmm* 

J CAMPBELL. 108, BEOENT 8TBEET, l»Ting 
• juat ratortifld from Bm4«mix, u bi^pj to infoim tlia Pablit^ 
that from tb* livg* pnnihMM 1m hia n«d* Am*, bf ii anablad to 
o&r ffaa ahowe &t hia nnial Prfaoi. Tba baft n-oirtlu of BordMUX 
in J. C-'a Stock are tboMof I^tte, Chataui H»moi, Lktonr, ud 
Uant Brion. Ho ba>^ lunnvsr, many azoiAaiit Wlaoa of Medoo, 
upon which faaUDn haa not itan^td hi uti&aU lalna, namelT, Tin 
de Bordeaux, SSs. ; SL JoHbd, SOi. ; I« Boat Hd KInran, Ma. per 
dozeo. In J. O.'a adeetlon of the VUte Winia tt Bonleaaz some 
Mouliaritist will be finuid, both aa regarda qnalitj and price. The 
SnntwiMk wiU> ita fine almond flaraar, anoh » brontlte in Traaea, 
SBa. per doaen ; Tin de OraTo, ao mooli dtaak In Hwnbtn^, iritei« 
the QUnuite ia oooier and mora humid than onr own, abo SSa. per 
dnaen, botUea and eaaea Indnded. 

The Trade and Hotel-keepan nqturiaf thaae WInet wIH do well 
tooallon 

XT. OMBpbaU, 1S«, Kavmt Btrwtt 
to whidt addree* Countrj' Ordon, with BwilttanftM or Town Bafer- 
enoei^ abonld be aanL 

ir.B.— Hie benefidal ow of tbaae natural Winaa to tba InnUd la 
prov«d bj the daily reoonmundatiou* tma the tlMnll7. 

VSCTAB, /e)i^K^^^^^^onroxBBSEB. 
M mm feotory— Ua, HIOB BOIAORN. 

Jttrt pnbliilMd, dedioatMl to Eir BaUwin Wake WaUcar, K.O.B. 
A VIEW OF THE FLEET AT ANCHOR. 

PUOLSAILSI AWITAIOFTII 

Priea in four pilntlngi iCI II 

HiKhtyeohmred <S 3 

Proob £S80 

Bin^SII^Sa. OnP^MT, MbyST.bdag 

THE IiABGBST UABINB SUBJECT BYBB BNOBATBD. 

■Iiondon: ACKBBltjUiK and Oo., H, Sband. 




SMITH & PHILLIPS, 

QAS ENGINEERS AND PATENTEES 

OF 
AMD 

66, SKIHSEK STKEET, SHOW HILL, 
And 6, WEST SMITHFIELD, 

HAYiNa invented and secured by Her Majesty's Royal Lottery 
Patent the most valudbUf economic, and useful Appardhu for 
Heating, Cooking, and Ventilating by Gas, beg to invite the 
Public to an inspection of the same, resting assured that every 
prepossessed prejudice against the cleanliness, comfort, and 000- 
nomy in the use of Gas, for the above-named purposes^ will, after 
a single inspection, cease to exist. 

So many unsuccessful attempts having been made to fonn Heating 
and Cookmg Apparatus worthy the attention of Men of Science, 
and the Culinary Art, and all these attempts having been lauded' 
by the Inventors (or rather imitators, for they have all imitated 
the same defective system of construction) as being perfect^ it 
would be useless to tlieorize on the subject, and thereby leave the 
Public in doubt, by permitting them to add this invention to the 
list of useless cooking and heating apparatus. The Patentees 
therefore invite the most prejudiced and the most scientific portion 
of the Public to have a practical proof, by seeing the apparatus in 
action, feeling convinced that, as others have done, they will 
return with a conviction of the positive utility of the invention, 
and the truth of being able to oook and heat by Gas, without 
producing any pernicious e£kcts, and giving an immense economy 
over tJte old systems of heating and cooking hitherto employed. 

DBSCRZFTZOV. 

The apparatus Fig. 1, so highly i^mredated by Mons. Boteb, (who cer- 
tainly is eminently qualified to Judge of the practical utility of this apparatus, 
as being equally well adapted for the cooking of the varied French dishes, 
as for the more substantial English ones,) is acknowledged, by tiie best 
judges in gas matters, to stand unrivalled. 

It is a boon, alike to the consumers and makers of gas; to the former in 
economizing the quantity burnt ; and to the latter, by creating a means of a 
general did^ consumption, instead of a partial use, and thereby compen- 
sating, in a great measure, by an increased demand, the reduction recently 
made in ^at important article. In this apparatus it should be understood 
that the burner under the boiler is so conveniently arranged, that it can be 
turned out for the purpose of lighting ; thus precluding the possibility of 
explosion ever taking place, an Inconvenience to which all previous gas 
apparatus for cooking are liablci This system is evidently of the utmost 
importance, as a meansof preventing accidents, and also gives an opportunity, 
if necessary, of cleaning the burner with great facility. In fact, the whole 
of the apparatus is truly simple and convenient, possessing the advantages of 

BOASTING, STEAMING, BOILING, BAKING, BBOILINQ, FRYING, STEWING, &C., with 

a certainty of perfect ventilation and combustion, and a cleanlinbm 

iNCRBDiBLE to all who havo only seen defective cooking apparatps. All this 

is cATTicd on with an astonishing certainly and regularity; the heat operating 

18 










of burning I..Toided..nd 




lioui quillliei 




IhU thi great Idrui 


TZ 


being ab 


etoreUrd th 




RguUdng tbs cock 






.1 lo ko.p Ih. mru 








am the •ppurntua, th« A 








»u«. Thw 






obUlB 




t^o>l H™ with 




ou. elMnie. indbav 


eheeo 






Itovt-Bimed rintleiriui (Mons. Bonr) to rspo 




Ihe t'Dok 


ng ippsmiu 


mimufKIured b^ SMIf 




















I uliltd to which, It hu underr^iw, during Kt«nl 


month!. 




ng.ndHVEn.trl.l>.the 






Ihefl.tu 




3 uid ipprobitton frum 


them«t«l.nllflcm 




BMtngl 


«r> of .hB on 


■™td.^Th^^PrL=.^ 


f tbii tppintug, £2 




pleti. 


firiXhoialUofle 










ETOII ,IF Clu 


■ hIjd>i>, Ixni, >nd I! 11 


HO-HaDiia ire pufi 


utarly 


inyll^' 




"Z^.Z^I^'^^i 


li Ukei plue 1ii\j 


»IhB 












promou 









Chw Oookliiv Apparatiu, mamiftiottired bj 



Srf'^i ^2* 




Fig. 2. — A. moat convenient appAratus, capable of Boastingr 
Baking, and Bail ng at the sams time and when in use for 
Boiling purpoaeB, Broiling or Toaiting cnn be perfbnned in tbs 
moBt perfoot manner Ironing la also performed in the moat 
cleanly manner by this aimple apptustus. Pnoe complete with 
a Tartety of necessarr Culinaij Art claf^ £i is Smm Ain> 
PaiUirs, Patentees. 



SO 



Hewn. Smltb and PUlUp>. 



BOTES'S CELEBSATED ROASTETt. 

Fig. 3. 




Fig. 3. — A moet economic Boaater, highly >ppred>te<l and 
pwtronized by Uoni. Soyei; uid, in jnatice to thkt great idbh1«t 
of th« Culinary Art, twars bii name. Priot £1 ISa. SuiTH axd 
Pbillifb, Patentcea. 




Fig. 14. —A Small AppaistoB for BoiUrg PoTpoiea. Price Si. 



•as Oopldng App>r»ta«. 




Fig. S.— A Gm Stovtag Stora, uuns u pl«:ad ou top of 
Fig. 2. With this appunitaa kll tho Cooking >t&ted to be per. 
farmed by Fig 2 cm ^ parfc r — 1. ooepi RoaMiiig mil Baking. 
Price XI uid £1 fia. 




irig. 8. — A Q»a Gridiraa, tke Talae of which nuiy be estimated 
bj tbe hundreds uov i> sn. Price £1 lOi. If with an Oven 
mttached, £S Si. 

Fif.& Tif-lO. 




Fig. 9.— A Small Stove, Eoitable for Heating Italian and Flat 
Irom, IRiUDeii and Fliuaben' Stddering Inmi , at tlie o 
' ' '■"■ '"" " ly Boiling PurpoBo. 



a alio be applied for any B 



Price 2Ii. and 



THE TOILET AND HOUSEHOLD SOAPS 

OP 

TGROUX'S IMPROVED SOAP COMPANY. 

102, NEW BOND STREET, & 17, BILLITER STREET, CITY. 

USED BT THE SOTAL HOTTSEHOIB 

AND MOST OP THE NOBILITY AND GENTRY. 

These valuable Soaps are strongly recommended by Erasmus Wilson^ Esq., 
F.E.S.t in his celebraUd Work on the SMn. (See page 61.) 



B0V8BB0&O SOAP. «. g. 

The YELLOW or WHITE CLEANSING . . in 141b. Packages 7 
WUITE and YELLOW CLEANSING TABLETS, packed in 

half cwt. cases, including cases, at per cwt 60 

Or half cwt. case delivered free to any part of England upon receipt 

of a P. O. 0. for 32 

This soap, for " oU Household purposes,** requiree no $oda in washing, 
and it 18 remarkable for preserving even the nnest textures, at the same 
time reriTinji; (mthotU runuing) the brightest colours. It washes 
equally well m hard water. 

The SPERMACETI NAVY SOAP fbr Sea Water ... per lb. 8 

WHITE CURD in Bars 8 

DITTO in Tablets and Scented per doz. 3 Q 

N.B. The aboTe Soaps vary in price according to the market value of 
TaUow. 



The TURTLE OIL, per Box containing Three Turtles Is, 9d, and 2 6 

This Soap was mentioned by E. Wilson, Esq., F.B.S., in his recent Work 
on the Skin, as the Best Soap for the Toilet yet brought under his notice. 

The TURTLE OIL TABLET each Od. and 1 

The CASTOR OIL in Bars, at per lb. 1 8 

DITTO in Tablets .... per doz. 9s., 9s, 6(1., and 5 < 

The ORANGE and LEMON SOAP .... per box 2«. 6(;. and 3 9 

The INFANT SOAP per box 1 6 

€k>ntaimng Two of the most emollient Tablets of Soap and one Packet of 
superfine Violet Powder. 

Tlie LADIES* TABLET each «<2. and 1 

The MEDICATED HERB SOAP at per packet 1 6 

The CHINESE SOAP in a Box containing 19 Tablete of the finest 

Soap J, 86 

The NAVY TOILET SOAP per box 1 « 

Manufactured for the use of the Officers in H. M. Boyal Navy, being the 
only Toilet Seap yet introduced for washing in Cold Sea and fresh 
Water; it is admirably adapted for Sea Bathmg. 

OLD BROWN and WUITE WINDSOR ... per lb. 1«. and 1 6 

VIRGIN HONEY per doz. Tablets 2«., 3s., and 5 

ALMOND ditto 8«., 9s, 6d., and 6 

The COMPANY'S TABLET SOAP . ditto 4 

Stamped ^-ith the seal of the Company. None but the finest manufac« 
tured Soaps are issued with this stamp. 

GROUX'S SHAVING SOAP in Shaving Pots ls„ CREAM ditto . 1 6 



Tliose wbo are not already aware of tbe superiority of 
Groux*s Cleansinir Soap over tlie<or(linary Vello-w and 
Mottled Soap, will qbliire by periisinff some of tbe Tes^ 
'timonialSf wniob will induce most FamiUea to 
trial. ^ 



H. J. & D. NICOLL, 
lU, U6, & 118, BIGHT STBIET, UD 22, COBHIU, 




mOOIX'S RBOISTIilCBD FAZOTOT. 

Hany hare lasumad the use of the word P*letot, but the P&tenteeB of the 
design and msteriil u«ed in this InezpenuTe and eentleiiiaDly uticle of drew ue 
Meean. NICOLL, Morchant Clothien, Palstot Patentees, and Manu&ctvuvn 
of CHothi who biTB agents in every Principal Town in the Dnited Kingdom 
and its Colonies. Their London Addressee are as foUov :— 

No, 114, KEGENT-STREET, fonna a Department for Palelots, ftc. 

No. 118 (the next house), is devoted for Military and Diplomatic Uniforau, 

No. 118, fur Bohes and every novel or established article of costume. 

No. 120, is excluaivel; for Boja' and Youths' Clothing, Servants' Liveries, 
4o., of unusual exceUence, and at 22, CORNHILL 

^>ecimens of all ma; be seen. 

In each Depurtment skilful and intelUgent AssiBtuila attend, and tin ad- 
mitted fact, " That an article to be really cheap should be teaUj good," is 
practically sustained. 

H. J. A. B. VZZOImI,, 
■IJ4 1X6. 118, UO, SBGENT &TB£ET, ucd 3?, COSKHILL. 









>7»:;'^0^7v>^>7\^^w'';iVw^7v^'::v^7*'<'>v'^-v'/':vV\'y'ivV*c-^.vV»> 






?? 






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ROUTLEDQE'S GUIDE 



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AND 

FAEE AT SYDENHAM. 

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